ILLUMINATIONS- Walter Benjamin

ILLUMINATIONS- Walter Benjamin

The work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction
그는 사진과 film을 분석하고 있다. 후반부에는 거의 film에 대한 이야기가 주를 이룬다.
photo (4)

The process of pictorial reproduction was accelerated so enormously that it could keep pace with speech. p.213.
Around 1900 technical reproduction had reached a standard that not only permitted it to reproduce all transmitted works of art and thus to cause the most profound change in their impact upon the public. p.213.

The presence of the original is the prerequisite to the concept of authenticity. The whole sphere of authenticity is outside technical-and, of course, not only technical-reproducibility. p.214
Above all, it enables the original to meet the beholder halfway, be it in the form of a photograph or a phonograph record. p.214.

The authenticity of a thing is the essence of all that is transmissible from its beginning, ranging from its substantive duration to its testimony to the history which it has experienced. p.215.

Aura that which withers in the age of mechanical reproduction is the aura of the work of art. p.215.
Both processes are intimately connected with the contemporary mass movements. 대중과 아우라 예술의 관계
The liquidation of the traditional value of the cultural heritage. p.215.

During the long period of history, the mode of human sense perception changes with humanity’s entire mode of existence. The manner in which human sense perception is organized, the medium in which it is accomplished, is determined not only by nature but by historical circumstances as well. p.216. 매체와 인간의 지각 간의 관계

To pry an object from its shell, to destroy its aura, is the mark of a perception whose sense of the universal equality of things has increased to such a degree that it extracts it even from a unique object by means of reproduction. p.217.

The adjustment of reality to the masses and of the masses to the reality is a process of unlimited scope, as much for thinking as for perception.

The uniqueness of a work of art is inseparable from its being imbedded in the fabric of tradition. p.217.
It is significant that the existence of the work of art with reference to its aura is never entirely separated from its ritual value
In other words, the unique value of authentic work of art has its basis in ritual. p.217.
예술의 아우라와 종교적 봉사 사이의 관계

For the first time in world history, mechanical reproduction emancipates the work of art from its parasitical dependence on ritual.
But the instant the criterion of authenticity ceases to be applicable to artistic production, the total function of art is reversed. Instead of being based on ritual, it begins to be based on another practice- politics. p.218.
예술이 기술적 재생산 이후로 제의적 기능에서 벗어나서 정치적 목적을 지니게 된다.

cult value / exhibition value

With the different methods of technical reproduction of a work of art, its fitness for exhibition increased to such an extent that the quantitative shift between its two poles turned into a qualitative transformation of its nature. p.219.

By the absolute emphasis on its exhibition value, the work of art becomes a creation with entirely new functions, among which the one we are consious of, the artistic function, later may be recognized as incidental. p.219.
이미지가 컬트 가치에서부터 전시가치로 이동한다.

In photograph, exhibition value begins to displace the cult value all along the line. p.219.

The artistic performance of a stage actor is presented to the public by the actor in person. that of the screen actor, however, is presented by a camera. The camera that presents the performance of the film actor to the public need not respect the performance as an integral whole.
The actors’ performance is presented by means of a camera. Also the film actor lacks the opportunity of the stage actor to adjust to the audience during his performance, since he does not presnet his performance to the audience in person.
This permits the audience to take the position of a critic, without experiencing any personal contact with the actor.
The audience’s identification with the actor is really an identification with the camera. p.222.
therefore the aura that envelopes the actor vanishes.
무대위의 실시간 공연과 달리 필름을 카메라를 통해서 배우를 촬영하고, 이 직접적이지 않은 간접적인 프로세스를 통해서 관객은 카메라와 자신들을 동일시하게 된다.

in the studio, the mechanical equipment has penetrated so deeply into reality that its pure aspect freed from the foreign substance of equipment is the result of a special procedure. p.226.
The equipment-free aspect of reality here has become the height or artifice; the sight of immediate reality has become an orchid in the land of technolgy. p.226.

그는 마술사랑 외과의사를 panting과 film으로 비유한다.
Magician and surgeon compare to the painter and the cameraman. The painter maintains in his work a natural distance from reality, the cameraman penetrates deeply into its web. There is a tremendous difference between the pictures they obtain. That of a painter is a total one, that of a cameraman consists of multiple fragments which are assembled under a new law. p.227.

The representation of reality by the film is more significant to the contemporary man since it offers, precisely because of the thorughgoing permeation of reality with mechanical equipment, ans aspect of reality which is free of all equipment. p.227.

Mecahnical reproduction of art changes the reaction of the masses towards art. p.227.

Painting has always had an excellent change to be viewed by one person of by a few. Painting is in no position to present an object for simultaneous collective experience. p.228.

The characteristic of the film lie not only its manner in which man presents himself to machanical equipment but also in the manner in which, by means of this apparatus, man can represent his environments.
The film has enriched our field of perception with methods which can be illustrated by those of Freudian theory.
the behavior items shown in the movie can be analyzed much more precisely and from more points of view that those of presented on the paintings or on the stage.
The filmed behavior items lend itself more readily to analysis because it can be isolated more easily. p.229.
Film reveals entirely new structural formations of the subject. p.230.
The camera introduces us to unconscious optics as does phychoanalysis to unconscious impulses. p.230.
그는 여기에서 film과 정신분석한 사이의 관계에 대해서 논한다. 필름의 매체적 특성상 좀 더 정신분석학의 대상이 되기엥 요이하다. 분석하고 관찰하기가 좋은 형식이다.

The mass is a matrix from which all traditional behavior toward works of art issues today in a new form. The greatly increased mass of participants has produced a change in the mode of participation. p.232.
Distraction and concentration form polar opposites which may be stated as follows; A man who concentrates before a work of art is absorbed by it. In contrast, theh distracted mass absorbs the work of art. p.232.
그는 여기에서 film과 관련해서 재생상되는 이미지들와 distracted mass에 대해서 논한다.

Today the film’s reception in a state of distraction, which is increasing noticeably in all fields of art and is symptomatic of profound changes in appreciation, finds in the film its true means of exercise. p.233.
The public is in the position of the critic. The publici is an examiner, but an absent-minded one. p.234.

The mankind, which in Homer’s time was an object of contemplation for the Olympian gods, now is one for itself. Its self-alienation as an aesthetic pleasure of the first order. p.235.

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