Stillness and Time 01; Marking Time : Photography and temporalities of the image (Daivd Green)
이 글은 사진과 필름의 시간성의 차이에 대해 이야기한다.
롤랑 바르트, 바진, 그리고 메츠 등의 글을 많이 인용하고 있다.
Siegfried Kracauer Theroy of Film: The Redemption of Physical Reality, Oxford University Press, 1960, p.12
He lays out his own version of medium specificity.
Kracauer goes on to identify four particular properties that define the medium and which he calls its affinities. ‘Unstaged’, ‘Fortuitous’, ‘Indertetminate’ ‘Endlessness’.
It is difficult to ignore that Kracauer’s insistent claims for the camera’s unique abilities to record and reveal physical reality.
but at the same time we must not ignore its opposite; ‘Its frame marks a provisional limit; its content refers to other contents outside the frame’ and its structure denotes something that cannot be encompassed.’ p.13.
the single most importnat factor that distinguishes the two mediums is, of course, that film represents reality as it evolves in time and this temporal dimension is indissociable from film’s ability to capture movement. p.14.
Roland Barthes, Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography, trans Richard Howard, Hill and Wang, New York, 1981 p.15.
Barthes elaborates an argument about the distinctive nature of the temporality of the photographic image, one which he describes as resulting from a perverse confusion between two concepts; the Real and the Live.
롤랑 바르트에게 사진은 모순이 공존하는 대상. 그는 what I am seeking in the photograph of me is death. 그는 현실을 기록하는 사진에서 죽음을 찾는다.
이것이 사진의 temporality와 연결될 수 이을 듯 싶다.
The paradoxical coexistence within the photographic of the Real, the authentication of a past-present, and the Live, the illusion of a present-presence, Barthes later describes more simply as the simultaneity of the ‘this will be’ and the ‘this has been’ or, in more macabre fasion, as a state of a future anterior ‘of which death is the stake.’
Barthes reflections on photography contained in Camera Lucida and which in essence are concerned with time are conducted in direct dialogue with the medium of film. p.14.
Andre Bazin, The Ontology of the Photographic Image, reprinted in The Camera Viewed; Writings on Twentieth Century Photography, Volume 2, ed. Peninah R. Petruck, Dutton, New York, p.145.
The ontology of the photographic image serves to lay the theoretical foundations the particular theory of cinematic realism. Products of the same technical means of image production, photography and film partake in the unprecedented ability of the camera not only to reproduce the mere appearance of something but to capture the thing itself. p.15.
Photograph and film diverge as to realism’s relationship to time. Photography’s realism is one that assumes a particular spatio-temporal character, Film, on the other hand, is no longer content to preserve the object, enshrouded as it were in an instant. p.15.
Roland Barthes’s own formulation of the having-been-there of the photograph as opposed to the being-there of the film.
Christian Metz, Film Language: A Semiotics of the Cinema, Oxford University Press, 1974. p.8.
Metz advanced Barthe’s argument that film overcomes this liimitation(has-been-there ness) and presents us with an impression of reality which is so much more vivid. “The movie spectator is absorbed, not by a “has been there”, but by a sense of “there it is”.” And the reason that film is able to convince us of the actual presence of something, Metz argues, is because of the appearance of movement. p.16.
He regards that successive images of objects existing withing space, movement lends them a greater sense of corporeality. Motion, tactility가 film의 사진과 구분되는 특징이라고 보았다.
Whilst Metz- as for Kracauer and Bazin-cinema is technologically and aesthetically dependent upon photography, ultimately it is seen as ontologically quite distinct. The differences between the two mediums appear as stark and absolute: on the one hand we have movement that not only is present but also lends to the image a presence that is associated with life, and, on the other hand, we have a moment frozen in time and an immobility is lodged within an ever-receding past that can only testify to an absence that carries with it the spectre of death. pp.16-17.
More recently digital technologies have further eroded the boundaries between the still and moving image in terms of their production, distribution, and reception. Whilst the same camera is capable of recording movnig adn still iamges, perhaps the more far reaching consequence of such development is that we are more likely to encounter both kinds of image through the interface of an electronic screen. p.21.
it is arguable that a conception of photography in terms of the automisation of time, its freezing of a singular moment isolated and abstracted from the temporal flow and posited as past.p.21.
It is clearly the case that the rapid and dramatic technological changes that have impacted upon both the means for the production and dissemination of the image have major implications for the way in which we experience and conceive of time. p.21.
이제 디카, 폰카는 동시에 같은 렌즈로 사진과 동영상을 촬영할 수 있게 되었다. 어떤가.