A history of experimental film ; A.L.Rees
이 책은 주로 avant-garde experimental fiml에 대해서 분석한다. moving image보다는 experimental film 의 역사.
미술사의 범주 안에서 다양한 예시를 들면서.
나랑은 아주 관계 있는 책은 아님.
Peter Greenway argues that cinema is the sum total of all technologies which work towards articulating the moving image. Cinema is a continuum. It embraces equally the gib movie and the computer screen, the digital iamge and the hand-made film, and such structures as speech ans writing, acting, editing, light projection and sound. pp. 4-5
Video and digital media the image in motion is coded as a scanned electornic signal. Film, video and electronic media are cinematice equations which slide apart even as they draw together. p.5.
What replace the authority of the image, an authority on which film’s realism is based? instead of the visual aimge, experimental film centres itself on the passage of time. p.6.
Modernism was founded on a new understanding of point of view, both for artist and spectator. Walter Benjamin’s essay on ‘The work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction’, a seminal analysis of 1936 in which cinema is central, traces the fading ‘aura’ of the individual art object as it its technologically tranmitted through the media cultre. This aura was originally bound up with location. 사회적인 변화가 어떻게 이미지에 영향 끼치는지 본다.
Cinema is an especially material art. it is also the most illusionistic or phantasmagoric art form in its final product and effect. p.14.
Photograph, which had been born from the science of optics, and is a third point of triangulation between art and cinema, had already made its impact on visual artists from the 1840s onwards. p.15.
Baudelaire, Bergson, Benjamin, and Barthes, the key and missing element, the capture of movement had to be added to the scientific study of optics before the diverse arts and technologies which made cinema possible were in place. p.15.
Balzac, like Dickens and Zola, charts in his novels the passage from classical stasis to romantic flux in 19th century Europe. Motion was a key concept and emblem of the period, from cities and empires to railroads and mass spectacle. The sense of dynamism which this implied, and of which film was both literal figure and late metaphor, was passed on to later generations by way of the aptly names motion pictures and indeed by a host of artistic and political movements which typically came, like light, in waves. p.17.
사회적으로 역동성, 속도가 중시. 움직임이 중시.
The cubist experiment sought a way to break the analogy between picture and perception which had governed most of painting’s history since the early renaissance. p.22.
While the influential philosopher Henri Bergson criticised cinema for falsely eliding the passage of time, his vividly cinematic metaphors echo and define modernism’s attitude to the visual image: form is only the snapshot view of a transition. he argues that experienced time is pure duration, not a succession of moments but a flow of invisible continuity. p.23.
Ezra Pound defines the image so as to compactly render the hallmarks of modernism: a conversion of the dynamic and the kinetic into the static, of the temporal into the spaticl, and of successiveness into simultaneity. p.24.
시네마, 필름의 기원을 멀리서부터 찾고 있다.
PRIMITIVES AND PIONEERS
focused on the cultural implications of the new medium…
In 1920 the painter Paul Klee wrote that the activity of the spectator was essentially temporal. p.26.
FUTURISTS 미래주의자들이 영향미친 부분. 대중화. 급진적. 탈개인소장용 미술
freed from the gallery… High and low were merged and barriers between the arts were broken down.
Italian Futurists are arguably the most important of the early vanguard groups. … The were the first to storm the public with wild-eyed manifestos and with art as a provocation.
… They turned from art as a private cult to its role in the mass arena.
Their idea of modernity openly embraced war and violence as well as music and the movies.
The make-up of explosive, eccentric, and uneven talents in the Futurists gruop, even its mix of avnat-garde and kistch, resembles very early Hollywood. Certainly Futurist was the cinema as a vivid, popular and dynamic metaphor for the age, and an autonomous art as they called it in the 1916 manifesto.
futurists에게 cinema는 deforming, impressionistic, synthetic, dynamic, and free.
a film was a strip of transparent material that ran through a projector. ..The handprinted film is a primal means of film-making, hence the early interest shown by cubist and Futurist painters in extending a traditional medium to a new format. p.29.
THE COSMIC BURLESQUE
Man Ray, Marcel Duchamp, Erik Satie, Francis Picabia, and Eisenstein.
The early film in genera, often but not only in its comic side, was to exert a strong influence on the avant-garde. p.30.
THE ART CINEMA AND ITS CIRCUIT.
the art cinema or narrative avant-garde was diverse and multinational. .. Like the artist film-makers, they resisted the commercial film in favor of a cultural cinema to equal the other arts in seriousness and depth.
Art cinema directors were able to take the advantage of theatrical release and distribution through national agencies and cultural organisations, as well as through their financial backers. they drew the attention of serious critical writing which backed their cultural circulation.
With such limited and fragmentary distribution, the dissemination of the avant-garde and Art Cinema largely relied on the art journals of the period.
Their favorite theme was the renovation of cinema through visual poetry. ..
As important as the screenings and the energetic journalism of the period were a number of conferences and festivals which featured the avant-garde film.
the division between the narrative and poetic avant-garde was never absolute, as seen in the careers of…
CINE-POEMS AND LYRIC ABSTRACTION
The idea of the avant-garde or art film in Europe and the USA linked the many factions opposed to mass cinema. .. cine-poems were closer to painting and sculpture than to the tradition of radical cinema. p.33.
ORIGINS OF ABSTRACT FILM
the German abstract film was a switch-station in the alternating currents that flow from cubism and Dada to constructivism. p.35. Russian artists made no experimental films of their own outside the national studio systems of the Russian federation. Freed from commercial restraint, while subject to official approval, the urge to experiment passed solely through the school… 필요없음.
THE ABSOLUTE FILM
Bauhaus student, Erna Niemayer’s Diagonal Symphony. (1924) diagonal symphony is a delicate dissection of almost art deco tones and lines, its intuitive rationalism shaped by cubist art, Bergson’s philosophy of duration and Kandinsky’s theory of synaesthesia, all of which are referred to in Eggeling’s written notes. p.37.
CUBISM AND POPULAR FILM
While cubism sought a pictorial equivalent for the newly discovered instability of vision, the cinema was moving rapidly in the opposite direction. Far from abandoning narrative, it was encoding it. p.40.
DADA AND SURREALIST FILM
Surrealism was a fully fledged group of the kind which dominated modern art between the two world wars. .. the movement was founded in 1924 from the debris of Dadaism. Both groups were directly linked to the devastating world war of 1914-1918 .. p.41.
Man Ray’s first firms anticipate the next phase of film art in surrealism, even as they evoke a Dadaist anti-aesthetic. 1923 년 즈음에 제작.
While surrealist cinema is often understood as a search for the excessive and spectacular image, the group were in fact drawn to find the marvellous in the banal, which explains their fascination with Hollywood as well as their refusal to imitate it. p.43.
THE FRENCH AVANT-GARDE
avant-garde films all had music by modern composers-Satie, Auric, Honneger, Antheil…
VOICE AND VISION IN THE PRE-WAR AVANT-GARDE
here the avant-garde focused on the role of the spectator.
Insofar as surrealism rejected absolute abstract art, it promoted in painting a kind of dream-image or magic iconography.p.48.
Man Ray, Duchamp등이 필름 제작.
Paradoxically, the assault on the eye can be traced back to the study of optics which Cezanne had recommended to painters at the dawn of modernism. .. The power of shock to break the viewer’s absent-minded stare…
The discontinuity principle underlies the avant-garde’s key rhetorical figure, paratactic montage, which breaks the flow, or continuity, between shots and scenes, against the grain of narrative editing. p.49.
TRANSLATION : INTO THE 1930S AND DOCUMENTARY
rising cost of film-making and the limited circulation of avant-garde films contributed to their decline in this period.
German nationalism under Hitler from 1933 and the popular front opposition to Fascism which rose belatedly… p.51.
REVIEWING THE FIRST AVANT-GARDE
71p Two Avant-garde
It was however in this climate that Michael Fried produced a crucial and much debated essay ‘Art and Objecthood'(1966)., which approached that agenda, even though it was devoted to a single but large issue for the post-modern arts and, indidentally, denied that film was an artistic medium at all. ..
While his preferred post-painterly abstractionists gave their viewres a sense of real presence and non-illusionism in art, the minimalists offered them only theatre-because, when the barriers between painting and sculpture are broken down and objects assert themselves in space, the result is spectacle. The spectator is outside the work, a loose presence, free to roam. here, Fried spied decadence and rejected it. Art was not entertainment.
마이클 프리드의 회화주의는 필름을 예술형식으로부터 배제했다.
Above all in the contemporary arts, the tendency to collapse levels of media and meaning into an all-embracing theatricality. It was perhaps only in the late 1980s and through the 1990s that the full blast of Fried’s suspicions was fully manifested in the fusions of live-art, environmental art and vieo in a newly dominant form, installation art, which does indeed trace back its ancestry to Fried’s main culprits, Marcel Duchamp and minimal art. p.72.
It is always possible to give Fried’s negative vision a positive twist or spin and turn his vices into virtues. The important issue is not only his own far-sightedness bur the pertinence of his 1967 critical manifesto for understanding art today, and the dominance of new media within it. The wide appeal of artsits such as Bill Viola, for example, is easily located within Fried’s model of Theatricality and visual spectacle. And although Fried rejects film as art (whether commercial or experimental) the structural film which was flowering at the time was explicitly anti-theatrical in its own right. A current revival of interest in this phase of film-making is a similar signal that mixed-media art and installation, dominant for the last decade, from the early 1960s, asserted a new vision beyond the underground scenario; and for the first time since the 1920s it also offered a critique of film-as-vision. p.72.