THE IMAGE : Daniel J. Boorstin
From shapes to shadows: Dissolving Forms
작가는 어마한 분량으로 미국 1970년대의 미디어 상황을 다양하게 풀어낸다.
그 이론의 중심에 있는 것은 결국 모든 매체들이 서로 유기적으로 연결되어 영향을 주면서 모든 사회 현상에 영향을 미친다는 것이다.
Graphic Revolution이 어떻게 literature / IV / movie / Star entertainment / music industry에 영향을 미치는가. 등등
Dissolution 되는 것으로 보고 있다.
매우 풍부하고 다양한 예시와 통찰력으로 현상을 분석한다.
The same newer and cheaper techniques of printing and book making which widened the audience also varied the forms in which literature reached the public. p.124.
The Graphic Revolution, in one area after another, has provided us with mass-produced originals. Inevitable, when, we come to think that the “original” is to be distinguished fro its technically precise copy only by its price. p.126.
The original then somehow loses its originalithy. The copy is far more familiar. Indeed it is only the copy which is really popular. It often gives us more pleaaure. p.126.
The original itself acquires a technical, esoteric status. p.127.
One consequence of the movie form was to make it possible for a spectator to arrive in the middle of one performance, and then to see the beginning afterwards. The fragmentation of experience was increased by the invention of television, when a viewer could turn the knob at will and enter program. p.129.
The increasing technical possibilities of movies and television did have the effect of leaving the novel with an entirely new role. p.129.
With the spread of literacy and the cheapening of books since the Graphic Revolution, the printed matter available to the citizen has multiplied. p.131.
The culture of DIGEST 이부분이 굉장히 흥미롭다.
To collect and digest the information on any subject has therefore become a vast and complex new problem. To help solve it and IBM inventor, H. Pter Luhn, has developed a computer program for “auto-abstracting.” A machine automatically makes a statistical analysis of all the significant words in an article. p.139. auto-abstract of the article.
The movies, which came with the Graphic Revolution, as i have already suggested, made possible a new dissolution of literary forms. p.144.
Out of the Graphic Revolution came still another phenomenon dissolving the traditional forms of dramatic literature.
In painting and sculpture we find similar dissolutions-from our exaggerated expectations of how plastic is our world. Andre Malraux, in his Voices of Silence, show how photography tends to destroy our sense of scale. When we can photograph any work and make an accurate reproduction of any size we please, we lose our feeling for the distinctiveness of every work. p.169.
When it is so easy mechanically to make a precise color reproduction direct fro nature, much of the age-old challene which nature offered artist is destroyed. Agressively modern artists insist that only now can their work become truly interesting and expressive. But the force of their argument is reduced by one simple fact: They now have a vested interest in non-representation. Formerly the artist was the only instrument which could make a representation of a man or a landscape. Now the artist is the only instrument which can make a npn-representation. p.169. 매우 흥미로운 지적
Now, when mechanical reproduction offer items precisely like the original, the uniqueness both of originals and of copies is dissolved. p.169.
The Graphic Revolution has produced a new fluidity in all experience. p.178.
FROM IDEAL TO IMAGE: The search for self-fulfilling prophecies
여기에서 저자는 주로 corporate image / advertising image에서 이미지가 어떻게 조작되고 영향을 끼치는지, 어떻게 pervasive 해지는지 주목한다.
이를 위해서 image 와 ideal 대립하면서 설명하는데, 흥미로운 동시에
다소 too dichotomous / too platonic point of view 라는 느낌이 든다.
tempted, like no generations before us, to believe we can fabricate our experiences. p.181.
Now the language of images is everywhere.Everywhere it has displaced the language of ideals. p.183.
1) image is synthetic : It is planned, created especially to serve a purpose, to make a certain kind of impression.
such images in ever increasing numbers have been fabricated and re-enforced by the new techniques of the Graphic Revolution. p.186.
suggest the pervasiveness of image-thinking. p.187.
2) Image is believable
3) An image is passive : since the iamge is already supposed to be congruent with reality, the producer of the image is expected to fit into the image rather than to strive worad it. The consumer of the image is also supposed somehow to fit into it. All these relations are essentially passive. p.188.
both subject and object then will want to fit into the picture. p.188.
Once the image is there, it commonly becomes the more important reality. p.189.
the concept of conformity with image 흥미롭다.
Since the graphic revolution the multiplying and vivifying of images has provided the new molds within the new conformity becomes possible. p.192.
When we talk of conformity, we usually mention so explicit object. We mean he is trying to fit into an image. Conformity is one of the most characteristic workd of our age. Its widespread use is, I suspect, an unconscious, inevitable by-product of the rise of images. Image themselves are invitation to conformity. p.192.
The passivity of conformity is the passivity of fitting into images. p.192.
We have become thoroughly accustomed to the use of images as invitations to behavior. Now the persuasion is more indirect. Graphic Revolution has made the hypnotic appeal of the image take the place of the persuasive appeal of argument. p.192.
4) An image is vivid and concrete
5) An image is simplified :
6) An image is ambiguous : it floats somewhere between the imagination and the senses, between expectation and reality. In another way, too, it is ambiguous, for it must not offend. p.193.
Strictly speaking, there is no way to unmask an image. The everyday image which flood our experiences have this advantage over the tricks of magic. p.194.
Fact to fantasy, the image becomes the thing. Its very purpose is to overshadow reality. American life becomes a showcase for images. p.197.
IMAGE-THINKING / IDEAL-THINKKNG
The peculiarities of the modern image and the consequences of image-thinking apper even clearer by contrast to what has been displaced: thing in ideals.Image now displace ideals.
Difference between ideal-thinking and image-thinking are the differences between our thinking before and after the Graphic Revolution.
An ideal, contrasted to an image, is not synthetic. When we think of an ideal we think of something already there. It was created by tradition, by history, or by God. It is perfect, but it is not simplified. It is not ambiguous. Its implications are not passive. An ideal is what we actively strice toward, not what we fit into. Credibility is irrelevant. p.197
An image is something we have a claim on. It must serve our purpose. Images are means. The image is made to order, tailored to us. An ideal, on the other hand, has a claim on us. It does not serve us; we serve it. p.198.
During the last century great historical forces have promoted both the rise of images and the decline of ideals. The Graphic Revolution has multiplied and vivified images. p.198.
The fast pace of life and the incresing speed of movement across vast American spcaes, well before the beginning of the twentieth century, had begun to put a premium on quickly impressive, attractive images. They were creating a new iconography of speed. p.199.
Images became important as never before. p.200.
Ideals became Corny. p.200.
We reversed traditional ways of thinking about the relation between images and ideals. Instead of thinking that an image was only a representation of an ideal, we came to see the ideal as a projection or generalization of an image. p.201.
The Central paradox- that the rise of images and of our power over the world blurs rather than sharpens the outlines of reality-permeats one after another area of our life. There is hardly a corner of our daily behavior where the multiplication of images, the products and by-produdct of the Graphic Revolution, have not befogged the simplest old everyday distinctions. p.229.
In twentieth century America we have gone one step beyond the homogenizing of experiences. Not only do we begin to erase the distinctions of nature. Our own distinctions become more impressive than nature’s. Even as we try to sharpen our artificial distinctions they become ever more blurry. p.229.
Our notion of time and the seasons..