Lost Dimension ; Paul Virilio
비릴리오는 그의 dromoloy로 유명하다. 이 글에서 그는 어떻게 속도가 speed가 urban spcae – city – 등에 영향 미치는지 분석한다. electronic topology .
speed가 어떻게 space / time에 영향을 미치는지.
1) The overexposed city
In this new perspective devoid of horizon, the city was entered through an electronic audience system. p.27.
From here on, people can’t be separated by physical obstacles or by temporal distances. with the interfering of computer terminals and video monitors, distinctions of here and there no longer mean anything. p.28.
This sudden reversion of boundaries and oppositions introduces into everyday, common space an element which until now was reserved for the world of microscopes.
Constructed space occurs within an electronic topology where the framing of perspective an the gridworks weft of numerical images renovate the division of urban property. p.28.
The representation of the modern city, from now on, urban architecture has to work with the opening of a new technological space-time.
Chronological and historical time is replaced by a time that exposes itself instantaneously. Spatial dimensions have become inseparable from their rate of transmission. p.31.
At the end of the 20th century, urban space loses its geopolitical reality to the exclusive benefit of systems of instantaneous deportation whose technological intensity ceaselessly upsets all of our social structure. p.33.
surface에 대한 재미있는 point.
Each surface is an interface between two environments that is ruled by a constant activity in the form of an exchange between the two substances place in contact with one another. –> new scientific definition of surface. p.34.
The instanteneity of ubiquity result in the atopia of a singular interface. (atopia is a society that does not have territorial borders.) AFter the spatial and temporal distances, speed distance obliterates the notion of physical dimension. Speed suddenly becomes a primal dimension that defies all temporal and physical measurements. p.35.
The overexposure attracts our attention that it offers a world without antipodes and without hidden aspects, a world in which opacity is but a momentary interlude. p.37.
The problem now is with the narrative itself, with an official discourse or mode of representation, describe and inscribe reality. This is the heritage of Renaissance. thus, the crisis in the conceptualization of narrative appears as the other side of the crisis of the conceptualization of dimension as geometrical narrative.
The crisis in the conceptualization of dimension becomes the crisis of the whole. p.44.
The substantial, homogeneous space derived from classical Greek geometry gives way to an accidental, heterogeneous space in which sections and fractions become essential once more. p.44.
From the esthetics of the appearance of a stable image-present as an aspect of its static nature- to the esthetics of the disappearance of an unstable image- present in its cinematic and cinematographic flight of escape. – we have witnessed a transmutation of representations.
Image’s duration is purely retinal. p.45.
Hollywood is more than anywhere else advanced technologies combined to form a synthetic space-time. p.45.
다음 부분은 2.2.1. moving image 쪽에서 인용해도 될 것 같음.
Video-electronics special effects. with this technology, the aerial view no longer involves the theoretical altitudes of scale models. It has become an opto-electronic interface operating in real time, with all that this implies for the redefinition of the image.
entailed a revision of point of view and a radical mutation of our perception of the world. p.46.
2) The Morphological Irruption
어떻게 전기적 매체, 디지털 매체가 기존의 dimension들을 붕괴시키는가. distance와 depth와 surface 등 기존의 모든 matter들은 변화한다.
현재의 sensible한 representation은
-from matter to light.
Today, the abolition of distances in time by various means of communications and teleconnumications results in a confusion.p.50.
The recuperated supremacy of distance-speed, measure as mach, bit-second, nano-second, over that of space, in kilometers, or time, restores the privileged vector of pre-geometric organizations of space, and contributes to the dissolution of the traditional formation of appearance. p.50.
For now on, we are directly or indirectly witnessing a co-production of sensible reality, in which direct and mediated perceptions merge into an instantaneous representation of space and the surrounding environment. The greate divide between the reality of temporal and spatial distances and the distancing of various video-graphic and info-graphic representations has ended. p.51.
At this stage, line, surface, and volume are merely aspects of the projectivity of the point and the instantaneity of the transmission. In fact, memory here is more a matter of passage than of grid. p.56.
Matter is replaced by retinal retention.
The speed becomes the sole vector for electronic representation. p.57.
The space-time of the opto-electronic representation of the world no longer involves the physical dimensions of geometry. Depth no longer involves the visual horizon, nor the vanishing point of perspective. Depth now pertains exclusively to the primitive grandeur of speed. p.66.
The center of the universe is no longer the geocentric earth of a helio-centrism, the point of light replaced the vanishing point of perspectives. p.66.
From matter to light, scientific knowledge progressively avoids any reference to solids or solid reference points, as they submit increasingly to the impact of advanced technologies and, thus, give up on their required material proofs. p.72.
The crisis of the physical dimensions of the sensible world in the era of electronic telecommunications derives from the crisis of the intelligible continuum. p.73.
이 글에서 그는 network / electronic media age가 어떻게 architecture의 개념을 완전히 바꾸는지 역설한다. 이제 건축의 matter는 light이 되었다고 이야기한다. 그리고 cinematic technology들이 어떻게 건축적 공간 개념에 영향 미치는지도.
그리고 information을 새로운 하나의 energy form 으로 해석한다. 역시 이 모든 요소에는 speed가 빠지지 않는다. 속도는 시공간을 재편하는 기준이 된다.
according to Benjamin, architecture presents material to a simultaneous collective reception. Matter, for example, like architecture, is no longer even what it pretends to be, since this matter is light. It is the light of an emission, of an instantaneous projection that results in a reception rather than a perception. -이부분은 솔직히 잘 모르겠음. 왜?
clearly indicates that the architectural representation no longer acts as one aspect among many, It is now simultaneously all aspects, all points of view and vision. pp.99-100.
Total matter and total cinema mark the end of Quattrocento perspective.
It is important to note there how Benjamin denies architecture its essential function of occulation; 이제 건축은 기존의 보호, 가림 기능에서 벗어난다고 주장. For Benjamin, the architectonic no longer operates among the registers of resistance, material and appearances; it occurs now instead within the order of transparency, and ubiquity of the instantaneous. p.101.
With the close-up, space expands; with slow-motion, movement takes on new dimensions. With film, we begin to see entirely new structure of matter. p.102.
그는 이 새로운 전기적 매체의 등장과 함꼐 deconstruction and morphological irruption of architecture가 일어난다고 주장한다.
These distances, however, are no longer situated in any depth of field or perspective. According to Benjamin, the field of action opened by cinematic technique is no longer one of urban or industrial concentration or sedentariness. We now have an open system, in which no one can find any perceptible, objective limits. It is a filed of constitutive dispersal. 시네마 기술들이 완전히 변화시킨다고 보고 있다. 분해. 확산. chapter 2.2 moving image에서 써도 될 것 같음.
다음 부분이 재미있다. 정보를 하나의 에너지로 보고 있다.
If informatics- with its networks, memory banks and terminals-is actually a kind of energetics, an energy form, then transmitted information becoems a mode of formation that affects for now and into the foreseeable future all the different types of arrangements we have been considering. p.131.
The energy of information feeds inversely an alternative, extremely brief, discontinuous current of transofrmation, in which the rule of space and of the spatiality of extension of different rural and urban places gives way to temporality, and the nature of regimes of teporalities, produced by advanced technologies. p.131.
The energy of information feeds inversely an alternative, extremely brief, discontinuous current of transformation, in which the rule of space and of the spatiality of extension of different rural and urban places gibes way to temporality, and the nature of regimes of temporalities, produced by advanced technologies. p.131.
Until the end fo the nineteenth century, space-in the distinction of movements and of physical and geographical extension-acted as the differentiation between space and time. Space becomes space/time, in a spatio-temporal continuum. p.132.
속도에 대한 그의 의견. 속도가 결국 그의 논리의 중심에 있다. 속도와 빛.
Speed is thus no longer simply a measurable qualitative dimension. Speed has become a qualitatively measured space, whose dimensions are based on the constant of light, of the light-standard and only the light-standard. p.133.
Communication has progressively replaced the limitation and interfacing of surface; instantaneous reception has replaced departure ,in the inertia of a confinement that is becoming the norm.
Because the habitual notions of height, length, and width have undergone a transmutation, one that affects the organization of ocular and auditory perception. p.135.
The accident of instantaneous transfer machinery displaces the substance of space-time, in favor of a kind of energy reduction and a hyper-cinematic reductionism that affects urbanism and architecture, but above all else re-orders geometry and the dimensions of physical space. p.136.
4) The Lost Dimension
memory is fixation. this fixation becomes neurotic or pathological if not accompanied by the projectile capacities of the imaginary, whose very possibility requires forgetting, understood as the absence of reminiscence.
A picnoleptic interruption, is the existential prerequisite for time ,and for the deintity of time aslived by individuals. p.137.
The picnoleptic absence reveals a state of rapid wakefullness that is inversely proportional to the state of rapid, or paradoxical, sleep that produces dream iamges. This confirms our sense that acceleration and deceleration, or the movement of movement, are the only true dimensions of pace, of speed-space, of dromospheric space. p.138.
from the interruption of projection sequencese. The projection of the light of speed, which is paradoxical light, constructs the dimensions of our fields of action and of perception. p.139.
Finally, informatics now appears, as a kind of energetics, as a mode of formation, because the punctum of electronic action is virtually or practically instantaneous. p.141.
The point, the pixel, is the imminence of physical dimensions. the synthetic image is the visible consequence ofa static conception of real time and real space. the appearances and disappearances of those form-images composed of points without dimension and instants without duraion, digitally controlled by the algorithms of an encoded language. p.141.
This energeetic formation, as informatic generation is no longer confined to computer-generated images of synthesis. 이 부분은 좀 불명확.
While informatics is intergrated with telematics, in the instantaneity of transmission over long distances, it is also, as in this case, integrated with a restricted object. The end of the great distances of time exhaust more than just geometric dimension and the geographical organization of industrial and urban territories. p.145.
그가 제시하는 represenation개념이 나와 일치함. 그는 이제 전기적 매체 시대에는 재현이 real을 초월하게 된다고 본다.
Representation now stretches beyond the real. It extends frameworks, so that we can no longer discern differences of nature among objects and figures, It seems that the advanced audiovisual and automotive technologies have denatured direct observation and common sense. p.149.
Cinematographic and vieographic techniques-the artisanal invention of disoslves, feedback, slow-motion and time-lapses, zoom, live and delayed broadcast-now apper to have been premonitory signs, symptoms of a de-realization of sensory appearances. p.149.
MENTAL IMAGES 라는 개념이등장하는데 흥미롭다.
With these mental objects, scientific materialism falls into its own trap; it is forced to accord denity to that which visibly has none: figures of the imaginary and virtualities of consciousness. Where before microscopes, telescopes, and other means of improved observation allowed us to see that which we could not really see, the newer advanced technologies of investigation now have given body and corporeality to that which before had none.
우리가 실제 눈으로 볼 수 없는 것들을 이제는 기술에 힘입어서 ‘볼’수 있게 되었다. 볼 수 없던 것들에 corporeality 실체가 부여되었다. –> x-ray 등에도 적용해 볼 수 있을 것 같다.
The problem is one of modes of appearance and disappearance in the context of light. The context is that of the substance of light, solar, chemical, electrical or other. Contemporary physics has taught us to consider this substance as material. p.154.
While we observe today the succession of form-images that offers themselves to our direct, indirect or delayed perception, we note that we are, once again, in the presence of a self-enclosed system, a system of representation the exact configuration of which no one is ready to estimate. p.155.