이 글은 Conceptual art (저자는 concepetual과 Conceptual을 구분해서 사용한다.)movementf를 이끌었던 Lucay Lippard가 기록한 글이다.

The era of Conceptual art which was also hte era of the Civil Rights movement, Vietnam, the Women’s Liveration Movement, and the conuter-culture was a real free-for-all, and the democratic implications of that phrase are fully appropriate, if neber ralized.
컨셉추얼 아트와 시대적 배경을 분리할 수 없다.
Conceptual art was all over the place in style and content, but materially quite specific.

Conceptual art, for me, means work in which the idea is paramount and the material form is secondary, lightweiehgt, ephemeral, cheap, unpretentious and/or dematerialized.
이 부분은 나와 다르다. 나는 아이디어가 중요하지만 그만큼 format이 중요하다. 이를 가르켜 dematerialize를 넘어서서, post-medium을 넘어서서 after-medium이라고 부르기도 한다.

The times were chaotic and so were our lives. Conceptual artists, perhaps more concerned with intellectual distonctions in representation and relationships than those who rely on the object as vehicle/receptacle, have offered posterity a particulary tangled account.
This is occasionally critical memoir of a sall group of young artists’ attempts to escape from the frame-and-pedetrial syndrome in which art found itself by the mid-1960s.

Conceptual art는 Minimalism으로부터 시작한다. Minimalism은 Abstract Expressionism.으로부터 영향을 받았다.
Conceptual art was an integral part of the whole process. It came through what came to be called Minimalism.

Joseph Kosuth, Dan Graham, Robert Smithson, Mel Bochner, Carl Andre, Donald Judd… etc. art as community

Art as idea, art as action.

Inspired by Marcel Duchamp. 그러나 실질적으로 뒤샹에 대한 반응은 나뉘었다. 너무 과대평가 되어있다고 Lippard는 보고 있는 느낌. 그보다 Ed Ruscha, Jasper Jones, Fluxus, Rienhardt 등등 매우 중요하다.

his strategy of bypassing the art world with exhibitions that took place outside of galleries and’or New York and’or were united in publications that were are rather than merely about art dovetailed with my own notions of a dematerialized art that would be free of art-world commodity status. Siegelaub went right ahead and did what had to be done to create international models for an alternative art network.

Conceptual art는 어느정도 Marxism과 연결된다. Conceptual art was very much a product of, or fellow traveler with, the political ferment of the times.
Political movement, but the most effective visual antiwar imagery of the period came from outside the art world, from popular/political culture.

Conceptual art, with its transformation of the studio into a study, brought art itself closer to my own activities.

The inexpensive, ephemeral, unintimidation character of the Conceptual mediums themselves (video, performance, photography, narrative, text, actions) encouraged women to participate, to move through this crack in the art world’s walls. With the pulic introduction of younger women into Conceptual art, a number of new subjects and approaches appeared: narrative, role-playing, guise and disguise, body and beauty issues; a focus on fragmentation, interrelationships, autobiography, performance, daily life, and, of course, on feminist politics.

Women Conceptual artists : Lee Lozano, Yoko Ono, Agnes Denes, Adrian Piper.

Sol LeWitt : ideas alone can be works of art.
John Baldessari : I was beginning to suspecft that information could be interesting in its own right and need not be visual as in Cubist.

Although Conceptual art emerged from Minimalism, its basic principles were very different, stressing the acceptively open-ended in contrast to Minimalism’s rejectively self-contained. If Minimalism formally expressed “less is more.” Conceptual art was about saying “more with less”.

With a few exceptions, the art was apolitical. Conceptual artists more of whom were then in their twentiesand thirties, looked and sounded like radicals.

Hans Haacke : Information presented at the right time and in the right place can potentially be very powerful. It can affect the general social fabric… Systems can be physical, biological, or social.

It was usually the form rather than the content of Conceptual art that carried a political message.

The artists who are trying to do non-object art are introducing a drastic solution to the problems of artists being bought and sold so easily, along with their art. They are patrons rather than collectors.
Conceptual art와 Originality에 대한 문제.

This attack on the notion of originality, the artist’s touch, and the competitive aspects of individual style constituted an attack on the genius theory, the hitherto most cherished aspect of patriarchal, ruling -class art.

Conceptual strategy
1) Appropriation
A related notion, also designed to avoid the isolation of art from the ordinary world, was a new angle on style and authorship, which led to post-Dada appropriation.
The object or the idea of oral communication out of its natural context, and putting it in an art context, by speaking it, at which point “it became a concept.”

This is as close as Conceptual art came to the meaningful play of Dada, and these were actually, political questions that affected the whole conception of what art was and what art could do.

2) Representation
Mel Bochner, 1970 : The root word “image” need not be used only to mean representation in the sense of one thing referring to something other than itself. To represent can be defined as the shift in referential frames of the viewer from the space of events to the space of statements or vice versa. Imagining is not a pictorial preoccupation. Imagination is a projection, the exteriorizing of ideas about the nature of things seen. It reproduces that which is initially without product.

Systems were laid over life the way a rectangular format is laid over the seen in paintings.
The emphasis on process also led to art-as-life, life-as-art pieces.

3) Communication and Distribution
Communication and distribution were inherent in Conceptual art. Joseph Beuys.
Verbal strategies enabled Conceptual art to be political, but no populist. kThere are significant differences. The idea of swift communication implies that no one has anything.
There was also a semiotic component.

Since novelty was the fuel for the conventional art market, and novelty depended upon speed and change, Conceptual artists gloried in speeding past the cumbersome established process of museum sponsored exhibitions and catalogues by means of mail art..etc.
art communicated as rapidly as it is made.

Much art now is transported by the artist, or in the artist himself, rather than by watered-down, belated circulating exhibitions or by existing information networks.

Artist / Art community / world.

4) Decentralization and internationalism
these were major aspects of the prevailing distribution theories.
The easily portable, easily communicated forms of Conceptual arts made it possible for artists working out of the major art centers to participate in the early stages of new ideas.

Some of us though we had in our hands the weapon that would transform the art world into a democratic institution.

Inevitably, the issues of Conceptual art as “not art”. “non-art” , and “anti-art” was raised in the face of all these typed and xeroxed pages, blurry photographs, and radical gestures.

Presentation is a problem because it can easily become a form in itself, and this can be misleading. I would always opt for the most neutral format, one that doesn’t interfere with or distort the informtaion.

One of the suggested solution was a tabula rasa in 1970s.

Such escape attempts were in fact being made by the artists rather than by the audiences. In this case the audience was forced to act out the artists’ desires-to break out the system. Mush of this discussion had to do with boundaries-those imposed by conventional art definitions and context, and those chosen by the artists to make points about the new, autonomous lines they were drawing.

I suspected that the art world is probably going to be able to absorb conceptual art as anothe rmovement and not pay too much attention ot it. The art establishment depends so greatly on objects which can be bought and sold….
It seems that these artsits would therefore be forcibly freed from the tyranny of a commodity status and market-orientation. Three years later, the major conceptualists are selling work for substantial sums here and in Europe; they are represented by the world’s most prestigious galleries. Clearly whatever minor revolutions in communication have been achieved by the process of dematerializing the object… art and artists in capitalist society remain luxuries.

It is also clear that the Conceptual artists set up a model that remains flexible enough to be useful today.

Conceptualists indicated that the most exciting art might still be luried in social energies not yet recognized as art. The process of extending the boundaries did not stop with Conceptual art: These energies are still out there, waiting for artists to plug into them, potential fuel for the expansing of what art can mean. The escape was temporary. Art was recaptured and senet back to its white cell, but parole is always a possibility.

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