Education and thinking: the role of knowledge – Robert Glaser
university of Pittsburgh
February 1984, American Psychologist
copyright 1984 by American Psycologist Association, Inc.
Vol.39, No 2, 93-104
이 글을 learning에 있어서 schemata가 무엇인지 간략하게 설명하고 있다.
Schemata and Pedagogical Theories
Schemata theory to describe how acquired knowledge is organized and represented and how such cognitive structure facilitate the use of knowledge in particular ways.p.100.
A schema is conceived of as a modifiable information structure that represents generic concepts stored in memory. Schemata represent knowledge that we experience-interrelationship between objects, situations, events, and sequences of events that normally occur. IN this sense, schemata are prototypes in memory of frequently experienced situations that individuals use to interpret instances of related knowledge.
People typically try to integrate new information with prior knowledge, and in many situations in which they cope with new information, much is left out to that they could never understand the situation without filling it in by means of prior knowledge. p.100.
This prior knowledge is represented in memory by a schema that specifies the relationship between the roles played by various people, objects, and the actions.
Schema theory assumes that there are schemata for recurrent situations, and that one of their major functions is to construct interpretations of situations.
즉 schemata는 연속적이고 반복적인 이전 상황들을 해석하고, 이에 근거해서 새로운 상황을 분석하게 하는 틀을 말한다.
A schema is either accepted, rejected, modified, or replaced.
Such prototypical structures play a central role in thinking and understanding, and the reasoning that occurs takes place in the context of these specific networks of knowledge.
The strong assumption is that problem solving, comprehension, and learning are based on knowledge, and that people continuously try to understand and think about the new in terms of what they already know.
Abilities ot make inferences and to generate new information can be fostered by insuring maximum contact with prior knowledge that can be restructured and further developed. p.101.
4 pedagogical principles.
1. one must understand an individual’s current state of knowledge.
2. pedagogical theory can be specified by the teacher that is different from, bust close to the theory held by the learner.
3. IN the context of this pedagogical theory, students can test, evaluate, and modify their current theory so that some resolution between the two is arrived at.
4.The stage is set for further progression of schemata changes as the students work with, debug, and generate new theories.
Such structures, when they are interrogated, instantiated, or falsified, help organize new knowledge and offer a basis for problem solving that lead to the formation of more compete and expert schemata. The process of knowledge acquisition can be seen as the successive development of structures which are tested and modified or replaced in way that facilitate learning and thinking.
Psychological knowledge of learning and thinking has developed cumulatively through SR formulations, Gestalt concepts, information-processing models and current knowledge-based conceptions.