From Celluloid to Cyberspace: The Media Arts and the Changing Arts World

From Celluloid to Cyberspace: The Media Arts and the Changing Arts World
Kevin F. McCarthy, Elizabeth Heneghan Ondaatje



These limits are particularly pronounced with regard to the newest and most dynamic component of the arts world.
The media arts differ from the more traditional performing, visual, and literary arts in several respects. First, the lack the long history, well-established traditions, and external visibility of other art forms. Second, they place a premium on innovation and experimentation. Third, their creation and disrtibution rely to a much greater extent on emerging information technologies. p.7.
These features of the media arts make them particularly worthy of study. p.7.
The media arts bring a different set of assets and liabilities to bear in dealing with these challenges. ..
If the media arts are to build on their special assets in the changing environment of the future, they will need to address these liabilities. p.8.

Recently, a new series of developments indicates that the arts world is shifting again. .. diversity of individuals who identify themselves as artists have been increasing. p.8.

In combination, these developments are reshaping the organization ecology of the arts world and blurring the traditional distinctions among sectors, disciplines, and media. Instead of a sharp demarcation between a nonprofit sector producing mass entertainment, the arts world appear to be increasingly divided along the lines of small versus large organizations and those that cater to broad markets versus niche markets.

Technology has played an important role in this process by spawning entirely newn art form as and reshaping how the arts are distributed. But these may only be the most obvious of technology’s effects on the arts. In addition, technology is also affecting the size and the character for the arts, how individuals experience the arts, the motivations and practices of artists, and even the social purposes of the arts. p.9.

those features of the media arts that identify them as a distinctive arts genre.Thus, the growing literature on the media arts discusses aesthetics, interest in social commentary and change, artistic styles, and techniques but contains very little empirical information on structural features. p.10.

the number of media artists has been increasing and their backgrounds have been becoming more diverse.
First, the emergence of computer based work appears to have attracted a large number of new artists to the field. Second, declining costs of the technology used in the media arts have made work as a media artists more affordable. Third, the growth of university film schools and meida arts programs has provided training to a much greater number of potential media artists. Finally reduction of the traditional barriers to collaboration between the commercial and independent sectors has expanded the employment options of media artists.

First, media artists often work alone or with groups put together for a specific project and thus may lack the institutional resources available to other types of artists. Second, the market for media arts work is often highly specialized and, given its rapidly changing nature, not well identified or established. Third, the distribution process itself appears to be changing. p.11.


changing patterns of consumer demand, increasing diversity of artistic forms and artists’ roles, the diffusion of new distribution technologies, increasing collaborations between the commercial and nonprofit arts sectors, and changing funding patterns. \
–> these studies argue that the arts in America are entering a new ear. p.1.

The key to developing strategies to meet these challenges is to understand the source and nature of the changes engendering them. we do not know how those forces operate…인용할 부분.

These gaps n our knowledge are particularly glaring with regard to the media arts. the media arts are both very new and particularly dynamic. p.8. Media Arts includes a diverse array of artistic work. They emcompass narrative, documentary, and experimental films; videos and digital product; and installation art that uses media and computer-generated and displayed art. p.2. 인용할 부분.

Media Arts가 다른 장르의 예술과 구분되는 점.
First, Media Arts lack the long history, well-established traditions, and external visibility of other art forms. second, Media Arts has traditionally emphasized innovation and experimentation. this feature is reflected in the strong avant-garde or experimental tradition.
Third, since their inception, Media Arts has relied on technology for their creation and distribution to a much greater extent than other art forms have. This close relationship between Media Arts and technology has spawned new art forms and distribution mechanisms within Media Arts and also, as Benjamin pointedd out, “transformation the nature of the art itself.” Understanding how the media arts respond to the challenges posed by the new arts environment may provide important insights into the future of the arts in America. 이부분 인용. 이 새로운 환경과 맞물려서 어떻게 분석할 수 있을지.p.3.

현재까지 Media Arts에 대한 literature가 갖고있는 한계점Liabilities 4가지
1. it is much more likely to focus on individual media arts disciplines, such as documentaries or internet art, than on the media arts as a distinctive genre.
2. literature emphasizes the artistic and aesthetic aspects of the media arts rather than their organizational characteristics.
3. there are few systematic empirical data on such features of the media arts as the size and characteristics of their audiences, the employment and background …
4. the literature on the media arts might generally be described as fugitive in the sense that it is scattered cross a wide array of sources including newspapers, magazines, academic journals, exhibition catalogues, … that are difficult to find using standard bibliographic sources. 이 부분 중요하다. archivingn이 잘 되어 있지 않다.

이 논문은 기존의 literature와 달리 structural characteristic, such as their audiences or how they are funded, marketed and distributed, .. 등에 초점을 맞춘다. p.3.

이 논문의 analytical approach의 분류기준들.
2 source of Information
1) literature review
2) interview and discussions with individuals
a central challenge for this analysis was to organize these various sources of information to draw a systematic picture of the media arts.
which emphasize the aesthetic features of the media arts, this framework emphasizes their structural or organizational components. pp.4-5

3 components of framework : types of Media Arts
Media Arts can be distinguished along at least three dimensions;
1. disciplines
2. the media tools they use
3. the functions they perform (narrative / documentary / experimental)

Identify Market Sector
commercial / nonprofit / volunteer

Distinguish structural components of Media Arts system
1. audiences
2. artists
3. arts organizations
4. funders

the process starts with the artists’ creation of the work and ends with the audience or user’s experience of the work. Between the artists and their audiences lies an array of organizations that present, record, collect, preserve, and transmit works or art. Taken together, all these entities make up the media arts system. p.6.

Media Arts, for example, are less traditional-bound and have cultivated innovation and experimentation both in arts creation and distribution. They are typically at the cutting edge of new information technologies-perhaps the major force in contemporary culture in what many have referred to as new information age.

Media Arts face a number of liabilities. As a result, the media arts often lack a clear identity and external visibility.

They need to address a series of organizational and policy issues. These issues include establishing a clearer identity as a distinctive art genre, increasing their visibility in the external world, and clarifying both their contributions to the public at large and their role in contemporary culture. p.7.

1. Media Arts should recognize and leverage their special assets.
Media Arts have several assets that should position them well to adjust to these changes :a close connection with technologies that enable consumers to tailor participation to individual tastes; a tradition of experimentation and innovation, which has given rise to a diversity of artistic styles and perspectives that appeal to a correspondingly wide array of consumer, public, and research interests; and the specialized nature of the audiences for many of Media Arts(both commercial and noncommercial). p.8.

2. Media Artists need to acknowledge and take advantage of new employment opportunities.
increasing demand for Media Arts content, increasing collaboration between Media Artists and a variety of commercial and research organizations… p.8.

3. Media Artists need to develop and use their new distribution resources.
They rely on many intermediaries to fund, produce, screen, distribute, collect, preserve, and market their work. First Media Artists often work as individuals. A second problem for Media Artist has been getting their work reviewed and distributed. Experimental nature of much of Media Arts can compound this problem because both critic and funders may be slow to accept new work and/or lack the expertise to evaluate and present it. New distribution technologies… they could provide Media Artists expand distribution opportunities and access to specialized niche markets. p.9.

4. Media Artists need to address an increasing range of policy issues.

5. Arts organizations should explore new financing strategies.
This period of expansion, however, appears to have ended. AS a result, art organizations have attempted to increase their earned revenues and to compete for increasingly targeted and limited government, foundation, and corporate funding. p.9.



Chapter2는 새로운 technology가 how to reshape the art world. in terms of audience / artist / organization / funding system. 결국 전반적인 art system을 바꿀 것이라고 이야기 한다.

after WW2, the arts world was sharply divided into nonprofit and commercial sectors… the nonprofit picture changed dramatically during the next 30 years as support, initially from major foundations and later from goventment and the private sector. p.11.
At the same time, new technologies spawned new art disciplines and reshaped traditional art genres. Continued technological advances increased the sophisticated and range of products and the complexity of means through which they were delivered. p.12.

The audiences who consume the arts
The artists who produce the arts
The various organizations that screen, distribute, collect, preserve, and market the arts
The funders who finance the arts.

public’s inclination to participate in the arts as well as what they consume and how. 관객이 적극적으로 예술 작품에 참여하려고 하는 경향이 강해진다. 점점더. 미디어 아트는 이 같은 요구에 부응하기 좋은 genre이다. 나아가서 이제 대중은 자신의 taste를 강화해서 보다 더 personalize된 여가를 원하게 되었다. p.12.

American’s desire to personalize their leisure activities, including their arts participation, has been cited as a reason why attendance at art museums has enjoyed larger growth than attending at the live performances.
the development of a variety of niche and specialized markets as individuals are increasingly able to tailor their consumptions to their own taste. p.13.

art world delivery system : the intermediaries.
critics / organizations that sponsor, present, produce, collect and preserve art. / distributors / 은 보다 더 복잡해 지고 있다. 이전 시기에는 commercial / nonprofit으로 양분되었는데 이제는 두 기관은 구분이 점점 더 힘들어지고 있다. 이렇게 바뀌는 데 technology의 개발이 아주 큰 역할을 한다. especially digital technology.

However, a combination of new financial pressure and developing distribution opportunities appears to be changing these practices. p.16.
As a result, the number of organizations in the commercial sector has been shrinking as their average size increases. p.17.///
In combination, these various developments are reshaping the organizations of the art world. …
The organizational ecology of the arts environment is becoming more complex. The distinction between the commercial and nonprofit sectors is becoming blurred. Rather than being viewed as separate and distinct, these sectors are increasingly viewed ans complementary components of a complex arts and entertainment systme in which ideas, functions, and resources. Moreover, increasing attention is being given to the …
Similarly, artistic disciplines are no longer as distinctive as they have been in the past because they incorporate multiple disciplines and adopt a variety of media in their performance and presentations.

This is particularly true of media arts, where the distinction among film, video, and digital art have made individual medium less important. Instead distinctions by size and functions have become more important.

technology has played a major tole in this ongoing transformation. Concomitantly, technology is changing the behavior of the organizations that produce, present, distribute, market and collect art by expanding both the size and the geographic spread of the arts and entertainment market, the costs and benefits of success and failure, and the business models upon which their operations are based.

Understanding the relationship between art and technology is important because of the rapid pace of technological change and the increasing role of technology in the arts. technology has spawned entirely new art forms, as the history of the media arts attests. p.20.

Similarly, technology has played a major role in shaping how the arts are distributed.
These effects are manifested in the sized and the character of the audience for the arts, in how individuals experience them. By facilitating the reproducibility of the arts, for example, technology has made the arts accessible to mass audiences in ways that were difficult or even impossible before such technological advances as film and video. p.20.

comtemporary artists have not only explored the relationship among these concepts and how they shape our experience but also their personal reaction to them. These new ways of perceiving reality and the reactions of artists to them have been central themes for most of the major art movements of the 20th century. p.21.

The exact shape of the arts world in the future is, of course, unclear. But it seems certain that technological developments will continue to play a central role in shaping that future. Technology will have implications both for the various components of the arts environment and for the nature of art itself. Since the media arts have been the most aggressive in their use of technology, they provide a window into that future. p.22.



parsing Media Arts is central challenges facing it. there is no common standard for distinguishing among Media Arts.

지금까지 Media Arts에 대한 literature가 사용해 왔던 분류방식.
1. technological approaches : sort Media Arts by the media used and emphasize the connections between changes in technology and the artistic practices using those technologies. (Lunenfeld, 2000 / von Uchtrup, 1999)
2. functional approaches : focus on the purposes of the work and how artistic practices within a functional tradition have changed. (Rees,1999 / Bruzzi, 2000)
3. Subdisciplinary approaches : tend to focus more on the aesthetic of the art and the ways in which those styles are represented in the works of specific artists. (Rush, 2001 / Hanhardt, 2000) p.23.

first to adopt new technologies and later to adapt them for a variety of artistic purposes.These early photographic studies were a precursor of the avant-garde or experimental tradition that has been present ever since in all forms of Media Arts. p.24.

내용으로 3개로 분류.
크게 보면 film –> video –> digital media로 나뉜다. 따라서 나는 screen-based 연구를 해 보고자 한다.
narrative / documentary / experimental : 최근에는 이게 모두 합쳐지는 경향. 예전에는 분리되어 있었음. p.24.

2 separate disciplinary lines ; narrative / experimental work.
innovations in technology and artistic techniques were adopted in both narrative and experimental films.

video, the second component of Media Arts, becaeme available several decades after television was first demonstrated and broadcast. The high cost of early video equipment limited its adoption. .. 백남준, fluxus movement …
This work took a number of different forms. 1. social action provided a foundation for the growth of the documentary tradition within Media Arts. 2. more experimental component pursued a new kind of media ecology by creating video environments. 3. exploring the essential properties of the new medium.

The pioneers in the film medium, they believed that the production and distribution of films were dominated by establishment institutions both in the news media and the Hollywood studio system. The movement has subsequently spawned a reinvigorated tradition of independent narrative and documentary work. p.26.
documentary movement는 대략 세대의 움직임으로 나뉘어진다.
1. guerrilla television
2. community video
3. a new generation of minority and radical filmmakers p.27.

the computer and the internet의 등장.
not until 1980s that the computer began to be adopted on a significant scale for artistic purpose. Since 1980s, not only has the computer been used for the traditional narrative, documentary, and experimental functions that are now an integral part of Media Arts tradition, it has also spawned such new disciplines as interactive art and web art. p.27.

the traditional distinctions among narrative, documentary, and experimental work remain important. .. moreover, the growth and acceptance of experimental and conceptual work has increased, especially with the emergence of installation art.p.28.
The ability if digital technologies to facilitate multimedia approaches by incorporating film, video, audio, text, and graphics has blurred traditional media-based distinctions. Thus, the traditional media-based distinctions among Media Arts are less salient now than they were prior to the advent of Media Arts… Multimedia .. that combines and mixes the different media of text, photography, video, graphics, sound as creating a new communication standard.
This work functions in much the same fashion as hypertext links that allow readers to alter the traditional front-to-back sequence of the written text. .. but also gives the viewer more control over the experience. p.28.

the possibilities for interactivity. 이것이 아주 새로운 부분.
The interaction between the user and the artwork guides the artistic creation. .. in all of those examples, without a user to interact with the artists’ program there is no art. In essence, these new forms of media arts give substance to Duchamp’s dictum that the viewer completes the work of art.p.29.

sorting media arts by the medium used in creating the art is less useful to understanding the organizational structure of the media arts than the purpose or function of the artwork. In the last third of the 20th century, various cultural and technological development have rendered meaningless one of the key concepts of modern art-that of the medium. Monovich는 더 이상 매체를 기준으로 작업을 분류하는 것이 invaild 하다고 주장했다.
Moreover, the tremendous diversity of styles and subdisciplines that have arisen in the past decade makes discipline an unwieldly concept for organizing a discussion of Media Arts.

More visibility for Media Arts and Media Artists, more diversified and greater funding opportunities, a clearer recognition of the importance of Media Arts as a genre both economically and culturally, and a fuller, more integrated understanding of how their various components are related. p.31.

a spirit of experimentation and innovation has produced tremendous dynamism within Media Arts that is reflected in the diversity of art forms and artistic practices it has spawned. … Before the advent of digital art, Media Arts were dominated by film, video, and installation art using film or video. Work written since then has focused on computer-aided art. p.31.

디지털 아트에 대한 literature들 은 두개로 분류 가능.
1. the first category includes discussion of the aesthetic and critical reviews that focuses on profiles of individual artists and exhibitions, histories of the development of the different media and the artistic styles and techniques used by media artists, and their implications for Media Arts and the art world more generally.
2. the second category includes a wide variety of volumes that provides practical guidance and manuals for individual media artists. p.31.

Clearly, more attention needs to be devoted to developing common standards for collecting systematic data about Media Arts. This effort will also require a common vacabulary for describing and classifying them.



gaining access to wider audiences has been an ongoing objective for Media Arts. patterns of participation in the arts have been changing. art의 소비 행태가 변화하고 있다. 3가지 방식
1. the arts face increasing competition for individual’s leisure time.
2. the forms of individuals’ participation in the arts are changing as more people participate through the media or in a direct hands-on fashion.
3. these changes are affecting not only how epople become involved in the arts but also which art they choose. p.33.

These trends are related to shifts in America’s leisure patterns and to technological developments, should be conducive to expanding audiences for Media Arts.
개인화 tailored / individualized / 이러한 관객의 변화가 computer의 특성과 비슷하다. computer는 굉장히 personal device이다.

At the same time, improvements in reproduction and transmission technologies have made it easier for individuals to enjoy the kind of art they want, when they want, and where they want.
The computer + the internet 완전히 지형도를 바꾼다.

Similarly, the production and distribution of art using computer technology which the media arts have been quick to adopt-provide consumers with considerable flexibility in choosing the type of art they want to experience and how they have access to it.
Finally, by allowing direct interchanges between artists and consumers as well as among consumers who might share an interst in particular forms of Media Arts, it provides a channel for exchanging information about new work.p.35.

The behavior of distribution is likely to be especially important in Media Arts for three reasons.
1. given the tradition of experimentation and innovation, much Media Arts work may be viewed as more likely to appeal to specialized audiences.
2. many, if not most Media Artists, are unaffiliated with established media or commercial organizations and thus must rely on critics and other intermediaries to be recognized and marketed.
3. as Media Arts work and the number of Media Artists has proliferated, the probability of any individual work or artist getting recognized will increasingly depend upon how the work is marketed and distributed. p.35.

many of the Media Arts are relegated more to niche. .. this issue is underscored by the sharp distinction often drawn by Media Arts between commercial, i.e., studio, and independent narrative films…. Gilmore suggests that the key to the distinction between studio and independence of the work -not with its production budget or commercial success. p.36.

Indeed, it appears that independent narrative works can be divided into those that cross into 1) the commercial sphere and those that are relegated to the network of 2)informal and independent distribution channels that has come to be called the “micromcinema” movements. alternative venues and cinemas. .. most narrative work receives very limited distribution and thus remains unseen or seen only in niche markets. p.37.

documentary work has historically had a more difficult time appealing to broad-based audiences. air time / broadcasting 기회를 잡기가 힘들 이유 4
1. many documentary artist focus on explicitly political themes designed to challenge the established political and social order. 그래서 기피대상이 된다.
2. others have criticized documentary work as being of uneven production quality and in formats and lengths not suited for broadcast or theatrical showings.
3. intensely personal and community-specific topics of documentary work may limit their appeal and broad-based audiences.
4. whatever reasons, commercial and public broadcasting as well as film distributors appear increasingly reluctant to air documentary work in general.
이런 this reluctance to air documentary work ..는 change 중이다. alternative channel들이 생기고 있다. cable channels.. etc.

without broader distribution, including support for marketing through the internet and other new distribution channels, the market for documentary work will likely remain principally a specialized one. p.38.

이 형태의 작업은 distribution 형태가 일정하지가 않다.
Given this situation, it may be unrealistic to expect experimental work to appeal to the market and be supported by it.

experimental work appears to have its greatest appeal in more specialized or niche markets.
… Media Artists creating installation pieces, for example, found it difficult to get critics and collectors to accept the new art forms, even after museums and galleries began exhibiting it. … had a difficult time finding venues..
Interactive art requires inteaction with audiences, may make such work inaccessible to broad-based audiences. Moreover, the fact that many experimental pieces were purposely designed to be ephemeral-in reaction to the view of art as a commodity. .. Finally, some emerging forms of experimental art, e.g., art created by cultural hackers are designed to undermine traditional distribution channels and will likely limited distribution. 새로운 분배 채널의 대안을 모색하는 실험적 작업들도 있다.

오히려 과학 분야의 분배 모델을 적용하는 게 더 맞을 경우도 있다.
Media Arts appears to have limited audiences access to much of the media arts.

현재 모든 분야의 artists labor market의 현실
1. we noted that artists face a more challenging labor market than other professionals.
2. as a result, most artists struggle to make a living in their chosen profession and typically must supplement their income as an artists with other sources of income.
3. Finally, the number of artists has been increasing despite this situation.

그럼에도 불구하고 미디어 아티스느의 양적 증가가 눈의 띈다. 이유는 4가지.
1. artists of the new media arts, e.g., computer-based work, appears to have attracted large numbers of new artists to the field.
2. declines in the costs of the technology used in Media Arts have made work as a Media Artists more affordable.
3. the growth of university film schools and Media Arts programs has provided entry to the field to greater numbers of potential media artists.
4. by reducing the traditional barriers to collaboration between the commercial and independent sectors, Media Arts have expanded the employment options of Media Artists.

not only increased the number of Media Artists, but also expanded their diversity.
the emergence of the computer in the new media arts appears to have had a profound effect on Media Artists. IT has expanded the number of artists by attracting existing Media Artists to the computer-based art. p.40.

The new Media Arts have also dramatically increased the number and range of collaborations between traditional media artists, computer programmers, scientists, and a host of others.
The traditional distinctional between the commercial for-profit sector and the noncommercial arts has begun to blur in the new media arts. ..
new distribution technologies have opened up opportunities for media artists to bypass the various intermediaries that have traditionally controlled access to their work. p.41.

결론적으로 잠재력은 있다. 얼만큼 실행될지는 미지수이지만.
그러나 이전에 알아야 할 무넺점들은 4가지
1.although new collaborations with the commercial sector may provide new options, they also raise old questions about who should own the legal rights to creative intellectual property.raise new copyright issues.
2. artists may become increasingly dependent upon intermediaries. 연결해주는 시스템에 더 의존하게 된다.
3. If content is driven primarily by economic impulse, will the media arts experience a decline of avant-garde work for which the market is likely to remain both small and highly specialized?
4. their creation have democratized the creation of media arts. This democratization is reflected in the growing number of artists, their increasing diverse backgrounds and characteristics, and even in the process of making arts. The proliferation of new artists who cross over among media and/or use a variety of media in their work, as well as the increasing tendency for media artists to work with a variety of others, is blurring the traditional distinction among disciplines and media. These trends may indicate a need to redefine what is meant by a media artist. p.43.

the organization of the art world is changing in multiple ways.
예술 기관의 변화. 이것이 MA에 어떤 영향을 미치나??? 그리고 미디어 아트는 그 매체의 특성상 intermediaries에 대한 의존도가 더 높다.
1. the critical role of intermediaries is changing.
2. the channels used to distribute and market the arts are shifting.
3. the dimension along which the arts have traditionally been classified are blurring.

central issue for Media Arts is how to get their work displayed and distributed. rely on intermediaries..이게 미디어 아트에게 특히 더 중요한 이유.
1. Media Artists are more likely to lack the institutional resources available to other artists.
2. the market for media arts work is often highly specialized and given the rapidly changing nature of the work, not well identified or established.
3. the distribution process itself appears to be changing.

The pace at which new media art forms and practices are proliferating may be a particular problem for Media Arts because critics can be slow to accept new artistic styles. .. it is likely to raise problems for critics, distributors, collectors, and funders who are uncertain what standards they should use to evaluate such work.

finally, the rapid proliferation of Media Arts work and its changing technology of production and distribution appear to be challenging existing distribution models for Media Arts. p.44.

Indeed, the democratization of Media Arts may well increase the role of critics in determining which works and which artists receive recognition and thus distribution… technology is also opening up new distribution possibilities. p.46.

아직 문제점이 많기는 하다.

a new and more challenging funding environments .. to assume that both individual media artists and media arts organization are facing increasing financial pressures. .. Furthermore, the data indicate that although large arts organizations receive the lion’s share of total government funding, smaller arts organizations are much more heavily dependent upon government funds. p.49.

perhaps the most promising development in funding for Media Arts has been the emergence of what might be termed intermediary organizations that broker between Media Arts and Media Artists and potential funders. .. the proceeds are then reinvested in the work of other artists. These organizations help bridge the gap between the artistic and funding communities and in the process provide the set of skills necessary to secure the recognition and expertise Media Arts need to increase their earnings. … faec a more difficult time raising funds than they have in the past. pp.50-51.



장점. positive

The growing number of media artists and the diversity of their backgrounds are additional evidnece of the vitality of Media Arts. p.53.
Media Arts are also well positioned to benefit from changes in the ways Americans are experiencing the arts and in how the arts are being distributed.
In addition, economic and technological trends that have made servicing specialized or niche art markets feasible should benefit Media Arts.
there is a growing use of the internet for obtaining information and purchasing artistic programming. This change in behavior is increasing demand for content. Media Arts is well positioned to meet this demand. p.54.

단점. weakness
Media Arts are less able to support themselves exclusively through their art than they have been in the past. .. the challenges both individual support for their work appear to have increased. .. Indeed, it appears Media Arts organizations, like other art organizations, will increasingly look to hte markte and to earned income to support their activities. … in addition, although there appears to be substantial potential for audience growth for Media Arts, that potential has not yet been realized. p.55.


5 CATEGORIES로 미디어아트의 과제들을 분류
2가지의 이슈
1. relates to getting more exposure to their work and broader audiences
2. many policy issues surrounding new distribution technologies.
to develop audience, Media Arts field needs to consider not only new marketing and advertising strategies but also the impact of critical reviews of Media Arts works.
IN addition, how the new ditribution channels and technologies will be used hinges upon the resolution of a key set of policy issues
Media Artists and Media Arts organizations should actively involve in the policy making process.

funding source의 다각화가 시급하다.
will require not just increased funding but also diversified of funding sources.
A prerequisite for such an approach is, in terms of how their art promotes the public interest and accords with the objectives of the diverse array of potential funders. 개개인 단계가 아니라 social impact를 생각해야만 더 펀딩 기회가 많아질 것이다. 이것이 현재 추세이다. p.57.

사회적 공헌도를 중시하는 경향이 점점 더 커지고 있다.
in an increasingly competitive funding environment, more concerned with the public purposes of arts. Governments and foundations have focused increasing attention on promoting the public benefits of arts.
those in the field should explicitly consider their instumental or indirect benefits. AT the individual level / at the community level / at the national level / benefits to the wider community, can make a stronger case for financial support.

the importance of experimentation in Media Arts and their rapid adoption of technological innovation, as well as use of ephemeral media, a major issue for Media Arts, unlike the other arts, is how to preserve works done using formats, equipment, and computer code that may no longer available.

lack of visibility. lack of clear identity. lack of clarity…
there is dispute among Media Artists as to how to define and label Media Arts.Moreover, there does not seem to be an agreed-upon vocabulary for describing Media Arts.
장르 구분이 필요한 이유.
1. for funding : without a sense of of Media Arts as a distinctive genre, arts funders may be less likely to provide funding programs for Media Artists and Media Arts organizations.
2. for public awareness : both as consumers and as potential contributors-will be less aware of Media Arts. p.59.

that our assessment of the strengths of Media Arts emphasizes their artistic vibrancy and their potential to benefit from changes in demand associated with technological changes in the distribution of the arts.
we have repeatedly noted that Media Arts lacks a clear identity as a distinctive art form. It is reflected in what we believe is a lack of pubic understanding of what Media Arts are and how they differ from the products of other orginizations and individuals who work with film, video, and computers.

1. Media Arts community needs to develop a clearer sense of identity if it beilieves, as we do, that Media Arts represents more than simply the sum of their individual parts.
2. Media Arts community needs to take an active role in public debates about the regulatory issues that will govern the use of technology in providing arts and entertainment and to devote more explicit attention to the public benefits Media Arts provide.
3. Media Artists and organizations should attempt to broaden public involvement in their activities. Media Arts organizations need to consider how to increase public participation in terms of their own missions and goals.
4. Media Arts community needs to address the lack of systematic information about the field as a whole-not only about audiences, but also about artists, organizations, and funding.



sources of this reaserch

written literature는 양분된다. digital media arts의 등장 이전과 이후로.
1. Before the advent of digital arts, Media Arts were dominated by film, video, and installation art using film and video. the literature of this period is primarily historical and conceptual in nature. It contains profiles of individual artists and exhibits : histories of the developments of these media and the artistic styles and techniques used by film, video, and installation artists.
2.literature of the post-digital period is also heavily weighted with reviews of individual artists and their work, discussions of the evolution of digital art forms, and instructional manuals.
둘다 거의 비슷하게 개개인 작가나 작품에 대한 분석이 주를 이룬다.
미디어 아트 리서치들의 공통점.
1. focus on the individual media arts disciplines
2. much more likely to discuss the artistic and aesthetic aspects of media arts disciplines . emphasizes the development of particular artistic styles.
3. there is very little empirical information available about media arts.
4. we have described the literature on the media arts as fugitive that is it scattered across many types of sources.

those data are not collected or reported in a form that allows such comparison. 정보가 일관적이지가 않고, 비교분석에 용이하지 않은 형태로 존재하고 있다. 산발적이고 분산.
the Population Census collects a considerable variety of data on artists, including their education, training, employment, and earning. however, the categories it uses to sort artists (performing artists, actors, directors, dancers, and musicians, visual artist, graphic artistc, etc) fail to identify media artists and thus cannot be used to compare how these characteristics vary either across the media arts or between media artists and other artists. p.65.
As a consequence, we have little empirical information with which to describe the various structural components of media arts.
This situation is understandable given the relative youth and diversity of the media arts. However, it poses a real challenge to a comprehensive assessment of the current state and how the media arts compare with the more established performing and visual arts. p.66.

data could be made much more useuful by changing the categories used to organize and report the data. Funders of the media arts could play a particularly useful role in this process by explicitly recognizing media arts as a separate category for their grantmaking. .. in addition, a host of institutions, such as museums, film festivals, and funders, regularly collect information on such aspects of media arts as attendance, number of films reviewed, or exhibited, or dollars spent.
By usingn a common set of standards to define the information they collect and reprot, these organizations could provide a useful source of information on media arts. p.67.


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