Foreword : Peter Weibel
Hence, a national exhibition today can no longer be based upon historical concepts of state, nation, and country, people, and culture. In view of the fact that many artists and scientists were compelled to leave their home countries for religious, ethnic, or political reasons, and found themselves living, working, and realizing their ideas abroad.. …
Culture, it would seem, is a network that is constantly being reconstructed and rewritten beyond geopolitical, state, national, and ethnic identities. Although culture is indeed influenced by national traditions, it is not confined to national territories. It is possible for national traditions to live on elsewhere, in a third place, in other places. Culture is a heterogeneous project-a third space. p.4.
Formal Intuition Beyond and Within Art, Michael Stoltzner
let me finally study the extent to which the visitors of modern art exhibits are prepared to assess cmplex systems of images. … experience in art exhibition is fragmentary in yet another respect. …
“Beyond Art” provided some knots in the “system of images” without being able to spin a web, it intends to be a sketch pad that propels further reflections instead of a seducing textbook. p.11.
Laszlo Moholy-Nagy : Light requisite for an electric stage ; Berlin, 1930
Light and motion once again become elements of creation.. 그는 light가 예술의 medium으로서 쓰이게 될 것이라 예견하고 있다. These methods will probably be used in the near future in advertising, as carnival entertainment, and to heighten suspense in the theater…
One such step is the Light Requisite of an Electric Stage, which was sponsored by AEG for the exhibition of the German Werkbund in Paris and constructed by the AEG theater department.
Miklos Pternak, Vision in Motion, 1996m Budafest
in the twentieth century, the expansion of the image into space and time (meaning the process of addin ga third dimension to the plane Vilem Flusser defined as “the meaningful surface”) move in 2 directions on the technical/ terminological level. If time is added as a third dimension, the result is a long sequence of moving images. If the third dimension is space, we call it a three-dimensional image, which projects out of the plane into the line of vision…visible image, for the modified diagram apparently projects out of the plane into space. .. it is different from the simple virtual reality interface. p.93.
Otto E. Rossler and Peter Weibel, The Two Levels of Reality – “Exo” and “Endo”
Otto E. Rossler, Endophysics. The world as n Interface, World Scientific, Singapore-New Jersey-London-Hong Kong, 1998, pp59-60.
In the electronic age, the “interface” between observer and object becomes amenable to artificial manipulation. Perspective is, as is well known, not completely objective, but only “observer objective”. Distorting the world, it appears, is unavoidable if one is an observer. …
A twin notion, the dual notion in each case refers to the cut, the interface.
Both quantum mechanics and relativity reflect this “cut-type”(or endo) position. A mere observer objectivity of the world ceases to be hermetic once it has been recognized. .. p.220.
Peter Weibel, The Explosion of the Visual : Machine-aided Perception, ??
the eye came to be the dominant sensory organ in the twentieth century. However, the eye became isolated and absolute in relation to other sensory organs with the aid of machines and media, which opened up an infinite visual horizon. In the past century and a half, the image and its new status in different media, from the camera to the computer.
1.(stations of the technical image)
this evolution of machine-aided generation, transmission, and reception of images can be provisionally divided into 7 stages.
1. photographic images
The image produced itself without the helping hand of artist by an autonomous machine, an image automation.
2. telegram images
The telegraph, telephone, radio telescope, and the electronic telescope… mechanical image generation was followed by mechanical transmission of images.
3. film images
The simulation of motion. the spatial form of the image was followed by the temporal form of the image : film. The image ceased to be a medium of space and became a medium of time.
4. video images
The discovery of electron paved the way for electronic image generation and transmission… blended film, radio, and television in the new medium that was video.
5. computer images (interactive image)
information processing technology led to the totally mechanically calculated computer image. opens up completely new perspectives of machine-controlled worlds of images. These display fundamentally new characteristics: virtuality, variability, viability, which enable interactivity between the image and the viewer.
6. telematic images
interactive computer terminal data transmission technology allows art in the network. purely immaterial art in data space. The realm of immaterial signals is taking root in the telematic civilization.
7. brain images
the field of interface research and advanced sensor technology… the direction is quite apparent. By circumventing classical electronic interfaces, the aim is to work with brain-chips, or neuro-chips, to as to link up the brain directly to digital worlds.
Hence, there are new places and media for the image, or the visual. The image itself is no loner merely the painted picture: the image can also be a technical image, a photographic image,a film image, a TV image, a video image, or a computer image. The location of image is, therefore, no longer with the painting alone, and painting is no longer the only medium for the image. The image has long history of changing technical carrier media. … there is a host of new technical carrier media for the image. The viaul has detached itself from the painted image. Today, the visual is not just located in painting, but also in the cinema screen and visual display unit. The technical, mechanical media are today the prevailing meida for both the image and the view, constituting a new visual culture universe. p.354.
2.(Postontological art: virtuality, variability, Viability)
구체적으로는 인터랙티브 아트에 해당 하는 이야기이긴 하지만 참고할 부분이 많다.
The classical technical image media(photograph, film) and the classical media of art(painting, wood, stone sculpture) is that they store information in a material information carrier.The image itself is thus frozen, static; no part of image can change. The opposite of this is the digital image, whose every part is movable, variable, and changeable. In the computer, information is not fixed, but instead, free and variable. it makes the digital image eminently suitable for virtual environments and interactive installations. The changes the essence of image quite fundamentally. … The image has become a dynamic system of variables. .. The image ceases to be a rigid surface and becomes a dynamic image system with peripheral devices…
The conception of the image ceases to be that of a window (Alberti) through which we ca only see a small part of an experience fixed in space. Instead, it becomes a door through which the viewer can enter and exit the world of multi-sensorial fields of events that describe and construct, both temporally and spatially, a dynamic and virtual experiential space.
The interactivity of media arts consists, therefore, of the three elements of the digital image: virtuality(information storage), Variability(the objects in the image), Viability(the behavior of the image). The image is becoming a dynamic system with lifelike behavior. From the digital triad of the virtaul information storage, variable image content, and viable image behavior there evolves an interactive, dynamic image system: the living image.
The old passive viewer outside the image becomes a part of the image world itself. Audience becomes an internal viewer.
The consummate embodiment of the concept of postontological art. postontological art is dynamic, covariant model of the viewer-interface environment, in which the viewer can be part of the environment, or context.
The image becomes an artificial, model world, autocatalytic and context-controlled. This living image is the most radical transformation of the classical conception of the image. pp.354-355.
Peter Weibel, Constructed Art History,
Inszenierte Kunstgeschichte. Mise-en-scène of Art History, Vienna : Museum for Applied Arts, 1988, pp.18-23
이 글에서 저자는 새로운 media 환경에서 쓰여지는 미술사가 기존의 것과 동일할 수 없다는 이야기를 하고 있다. classical ontology of art는 늘 부르조아 입장에서 쓰여졌고, 따라서 아트를 exchangeable 상품으로 대했다. 이러한 개념은 폐기되어야 하고, 이 시대의 예술에 적용될 수도 없으며, 따라서 완전히 새로운 시각이 필요하다고 주장한다.
By altering the contextual meaning of cultural tools-the bourgeois ontology of the obkect, whose absolutization and defense has been the sole purpose of the history of art. The central, albeit comewhat veiled subject of this history-of-art production is the absolutely bourgeois ontology of the object as manifested and consolidated in the history of art. It is the more profound, problematic nature of the ontological status of the work of art that reveals the question about the original, the reproduction, the readymades, the machine, the real, and the simulation.
These are elements of a strategy aiming at accelerating the semiotization of art, at discharging art from the sphere of tangibility, i.e.,placing the ontological category of the possible before that of the necessary.
The way that art history is made, presented, and produced is best analyzed and demonstrated on the very spot of history itself by incorporating the site-meaning the museum-where history is made. Staging history on the spot of history itself is art.
Art has always moved within the triangle of work, truth, and being. The work relates to the concept of being, as does truth… In this sense, “the essence of art” can be defined as “truth putting itself to work,” a claim that Hegel had already called into question. All of bourgeois society is based on this triad. “The object nature of the artwork” and “the concept of the original” are metaphysical disguise of the bourgeois notion of ownership. …
All attacks on the object status of the artwork, on the myth of the original all questioning of the concept of the author, as carried out by the most radical forms of anti-art – from Dada to action, media, and conceptual art – are rightly rejected or marginalized under the guise of repressive tolerance and excluded from the art market. It is precisely the art market, however, that produces art history in bourgeois society.
The classical ontological triad should be reworked today. Being should be replaced by the sign. \
The frozen elements can be defrosted in order to circulate freely. The history of art as a formal development, which has become rigid in its exact definition of styles and epochs, is perforated by being stirred up. Rigid styles dissolve, formal elements contradict each other.
Fordism in Art. 저자는 포드주의가 예술에 적용되고 있다고 본다. 대량 생산을 위한 철저한 자동화. 비전문인도 교체 가능한 부속품들로 이루어진 오브제.
This is precisely what is happening in the cultural colonization perpetrated by our present cultural establishment. The consumer becomes able to consume individual cultural products, which are exchangeable cliches coded as culture, without understanding anything about art.
A new form of narrating and creating history can be introduced only after history is torn to pieces and dispossessed. The relation between word and object, between the symbolic and the real, bewteen the descriptive subject and the described object can no longer be unilaterally dissolved.
The issue is no longer what art produces or represents, as is reflected in this conflict or contemporary art discourses. … True art is always found where it is not an article of merchandise, where it is not expected, where nobody thinks about it or knows its name. In this respect, the withdrawal from art may be the most sophisticated form or art.