저자는 이 글에서 greek의 aristotle에서부터 roman – modern – postmoden그리고 현재까지 이어지는 상위-하위 구분의 모델이 있다고 본다. 시기별로 형태의 차이가 있고, 세부 개념의 변화는 있으나 끊임없이 그러해 왔다. 그런데 media arts, digital technology로 인해서 그 구분이 사라지고 진정한 매체의 평등 시대가 도래했다고 본다. 그리고 이것이 저자가 주장하는 post-media의 시대이다.
1. Techne – Episteme
Aristotle (384-322 BC), son of a Macedonian doctor and teacher of Alexander the Great, made his well known distinction between techné (practical skills, craft and art) and epistemé (cognition, knowledge).
banausos : class of manual labor.
In his opinion, the arts and crafts had a detrimental effect on the body’s physical condition and robbed the mind of the respite it required for sound reasoning. ..an undignified activity for a free man. society required people who would master a craft or trade (techné) as wage labourers or slaves, but only in the service of others – to help the latter experience pleasure, for example, or to allow them to carry out more sublime activities.
Aristotle의 이 같은 주장은 그의 정치적 입장과 맥이 닿아있다. 그는 민주주의를 옹호하지 않았다. serve하는 social system을 고수하는 편이었다.
Aristotle was an advocate of cuMarc rule rather than democracy. he attempted to neutralise the dangers of the two extremes (democracy and oligarchy). Hence Aristotle produced a commensurability of the aesthetic and social order.
2. Artes liberale – artes mechanicae
The Romans adopted Aristotle’ distinction but added one significant shift to it. Instead of distinguishing between forms of knowledge and craft, between cognition and general knowledge or between the experts and the banausos, they now placed the Aristotelian distinction in the notion of the arts themselves.
replaced by the distinction between the artes liberales and the artes mechanicae /
3. The Contest between the arts
It was not until the emergence and rise of the middle cuMarces or bourgeoisie that painting, architecture and sculpture were finally promoted to the ranks of the liberal arts. Around 1500, architecture, sculpture and painting had an equal share in the emancipation of the fine arts or artes mechanicae as they were known at the time. … Painting, in the latter view, dealt merely with appearance, whereas sculpture actually embodied reality.
The old artes liberals, once the sciences, today have become painting, sculpture and architecture, and in place of the old artes mechanicae we now have applied art and media art.
We devalue media artists by regarding them as mere exponents of technical reproducibility limited to the horizons of a machine and by assigning primacy to painting as an anthropomorphic principle and/or form of production.
arte liberal – MIND / arte mechanicae – BODY로 보눈 시각이 초기 미디어 아트에는 지속된다.
The place of the mechanical arts has been taken by the media. … In principle, the difference between the artes liberales and the artes mechanicae resulted from the assumption that the one was regarded as an activity of the mind and the other as an activity of the body. Today’s division is regarded as the intuition and originality of the artist versus the forces of calculating reason and mechanical production.
Whereas original works of painting are in the service of the upper cuMarces, the lower cuMarces are fobbed off with photographic reproductions, prints and postcards, etc., Even today, the ostracising of the artes mechanicae continues to be felt in the case of artworks produced with the aid of the electronic media.
The intention is for our fields of knowledge to be extended and driven forward through a alliance of the mechanical media arts with the natural sciences, and hence for platforms and practices of democratic processes to be created with the aid of new technologies and methods.
it is the mechanical arts which actually serve a purely artistic purpose with works capable of revealing the commensurability of the aesthetic and social order. It is the primarily ‘computational arts’ (Heidegger) that continue to be mocked by the aristocracy of the liberal arts in the feature pages which attempt to push for emancipation and equal rights of the unprivileged.
4. speculum Artium
We are able to gauge the emancipation of slaves and waged labourers in the upgrading of the artes mechanicae with regard to the artes liberales and in the struggle of the media arts to achieve equality alongside the cuMarcic liberal arts such as painting or sculpture.
We can, therefore, easily see that political systems with an ambivalent relationship to art also have an ambivalent relationship to democracy and that artists who uphold the values of democracy are disliked by many rulers for that very reason.
5. The doctrine of the Encyclopedia
18c : Diderot wanted to abolish the distinction between the artes liberales and artes mechanicae as a device of cuMarc society; he wanted to change society by emancipating the mechanical arts. By improving the mechanical arts he wanted to improve the social status of the citizen.
Above all, he pinned his hopes for changing and improving society on the dissemination of knowledge about the mechanical arts. Technology, he believed, would help to restructure society.
Knowledge of the mechanical arts would lead to a rational and fair society, just as we hope to find the same kind of society today in modern media arts and technologies such as the Internet. Experimental politics and experimental media art are supposed to support each other:
The Enlightenment and Diderot regarded the mechanical arts, technology and science as the foundation for enlightened politics.
6. The Quality of Materials and Media
Consequently, the manifestoes of the time called for the equality of all materials.
In the 1920s, worked simultaneously as painters, sculptors, photographers, film-makers, designers and architects.
Hence the first phase of media art centred on achieving the same artistic recognition for the media of photography and film as was enjoyed by the traditional media of painting and sculpture.
PETER WEIBEL의 매체 구분
1. non-technological old media : painting, sculpture…
2. old technological media : photography, film
3. new technological media : video, computer
7. The post-media condition
뉴미디어 자체만의 문제가 아니라 기존의 모든 미디어를 어떻게 바꾸어버리는지가 중요하다. 완전히 바꾸어 버렸고, 이제는 new media로부터 자유로운 매체는 단 하나도 없다. 21세기 미술에 있어서의 대부분의 중요한 담론은, 회화이건 조각이건 간에, 모두 다 디지털 매체 때문에 생긴 것들이다.
the new technical media consisting of video and computer are not just that they launched new movements in art and created new media for expression but that they also exerted a decisive influence on historical media such as painting and sculpture.
intrinsic success of the new media resides less in the fact that they have developed new forms and possibilities of art, but that they have enabled us to establish new approaches to the old media of art and above all have kept the latter alive by forcing them to undergo a process of radical transformation.
(from Pop Art to Photo-realism) was a development that referred directly to photography.
digital ‘Paint’ programs and the experience of working directly on the computer and the screen have given an unmistakably fresh impetus to painting.
whether the effects of the new media on the old media have actually been more successful than the works of the new media themselves.
The central movens and the central agendas of 20th century art: the crisis of representation, the dissolution of the traditional notion of artwork and the disappearance of the author – all these factors are due to the emergence of the new media. The radical turn towards the culture of reception which occurred in the 20th century, the explosion of the visual in art and science, the pictorial turn, are all consequences of the new media.
All of the artistic disciplines have been transformed by the media. The impact of the media is universal.
the parallel emergence of the computational arts whose aim it also is to capture the entire world.
they, too, are transforming all of the practices and forms of art.
Creativity itself is a transfer program, an algorithm.
The impact of the media is universal and for that reason all art is already post-media art. Moreover, the universal machine, the computer, claims to be able to simulate all of the media. Therefore all art is post-media art.
the specificity and idiosyncratic worlds of the media are becoming increasingly differentiated. Total availability of specific media or of specific properties of the media, from painting to film, is only possible in the post-media condition
It is only thanks to the post-media computer, the universal machine, that we can realise the abundance of possibilities which resides in the specificity of the media.
Nowadays all of art practice keeps to the script of the media and the rules of the media. … transformed and influenced under the pressure of the technical media. This explains why we can rightly say that all of art practice keeps to the script of the media.
Hence in art there is no longer anything beyond the media. No-one can escape from the media. There is no longer any painting outside and beyond the media experience.
This post-media condition is defined by two phases:
1. the equivalence of the media and
2. the mixing of the media.
The first phase was about achieving equivalence of the media, about establishing the same artistic recognition for the New Media
The equivalence of the media, meaning its artistic equivalence and equal validity, has prevailed after successful attempt to chart the media-specific idiosyncratic worlds of the respective medium ranging from painting to video.
the new second phase is about mixing the media-specific idiosyncratic worlds of the media.
This mixing of the media has led to extraordinarily major innovations in each of the media and in art. Hence painting has come to life not by virtue of itself, but through its referencing of other media. Video lives from film, film lives from literature, and sculpture lives from photography and video. They all live from digital, technical innovations. The secret code behind all these forms of art is the binary code of the computer and the secret aesthetics consist of algorithmic rules and programs.
, this state of current art practice is best referred to as the post-media condition, because no single medium is dominant any longer; instead, all of the different media influence and determine each other.
The set of all media forms a universal self-contained medium. This is the post-media condition of the world of the media in the practice of the arts today.
The ultimate effect of all this is to emancipate the observer, visitor and user. In the post-media condition we experience the equality of the lay public, of the amateur, the philistine, the slave and the subject.
the birth of a new kind of democratic art in which everyone can participate.