Beyond Cinema-The art of projection
Aside from a handful of famous experiments associated with Classical Modern Art, visual artists really began integrating a variety of filmic formats into their conceptions only around the early sixties.At first, these took the form of conceptual notations and documentations, in many cases as visual records of performance works, as opposed to the direct emergence of film as an artistic form…
The milieu of the so-called avant-garde film too was a source of decisive impulses which contributed to linking film to the visual arts.
Not until the advent of digital versions and the corresponding projection technology that video-originally limited to the television monitor-gained access to the multiple and large-format projection formats that are actually the province of film. p.7.
IN recent years, manifold productions of film and video art have fundamentally altered our traditional understanding and modes of perception of visual art.
from white-cube –> black box –> anywhere. with projection mapping.
The filmic image itself, moreover, demanded a different mode of perception than that required by largely static works of art. The entrance of cinema into a museum context formerly reserved for visual art, however ,is not only a question of the progressive expansion of artistic resources, but may also be understood as an expression of phychosocial or cultural reflexes. p.7.
Early experiences with American film and television prompted art historians such as Erwin Panofsky and Rudolf Arnheim to regard the cinema itself as a form of mass visual art, one that had begun, as a form of living photography. p.8.
About the exhibition : Stan Douglas/ Christopher Eamon / Joachim Jager / Gabriele Knapstein
In past years, the presentation form of projection has been presented only as a subsection in exhibitions. Major retrospect such as Fast Forward, and Le Movement des Images depiected film and video within an overall context featuring video sculptures and monitor works, and spatial projections. Other exhibitions such as Art and Film since 1945:Fall of Mirrors, cinema cinema and Video Acts were structured according to specific content-relatd criteria, exploring the relationship between the history of theatrical and art film or focusing on one-channel works. A few years later, however, certain museums began to devote exhibitions explicitely to film and video experiments from the sixties and seventies in great detail. Other exhibitions such as Moving Images, Video Cult/ures, and Videodreams presented narrative strategy as reflected in key works from ninties. But no attempt has yet been made to relate current and historical works, and thus to enable comparisons between early experiments and contemporary works.
The central aspects of the projection: light, or the ray of light. Light traverses space and is responsible for filmic images in multiple ways. Artists examine this physical essence of film in very different ways.
Regarding Shadows : Stan Douglas and Christopher Eamon in Converssation
talking about the basic metaphor and technology of projection. The only place to start is Plato’s Allegory of the Cave. A group of people grow up seeing only shadows of themselves and the world around them. Are we to look at these shadows as a trace of a higher reality, or do they constitute a reality of their own? … 플라토의 동굴의 논리로부터 프로젝션을 연결하고자 한다. 동굴 밖에 지는 그림자가 외부 세상의 어떠한 존재를 보여주는 것임을 깨닫게 된다.
1964, the avant-garde cinema will attmept to reject the paradigm of illusory shadows entirely. .. It is a priori that we are dealing with shadows-as is the presumption that projection constitutes a kind of material. 프로젝션이 빛과 그림자를 다룬다는 것은 선험적이다.
The illusionistic and structuralist, film/video as spatial/conceptual practice, the beyond illusion or beyond cinema paradigm still relevant today??
single channel video 가 대세인것에 대해서 – I would suspect that it has something to do with the way in which we make moving pictures these days, on a computer rather than with our hands. 기존에 film을 편집하는- 직접 자르고 붙이던-아날로그적 process와 digital 방식이 아주 차이가 나기 때문에 이로부터 영향을 받는다고 본다. 소프트웨어로 편집하는 건 결국 모니터, 스크린 하나에서 이루어지기 때문에 작업도 자연스럽게 싱글 채널이 많다는 것이다.
The conventions of continuity editing are completely arbitrary. But editing programs are disigned to simplify the workflow of cutting new, TV or movies all of which are simngle-screen mode.
in the late 80s, when CRT projectors became reasonably inexpensive, you would start seeing video projection again, but for much of the decade the idea of expanded cinema more or less disappeared.
The mot crucial and reviled technological innovations of the eighties were those video effects generators, which allowed video effects to be produced really quickly. MTV started broadcasting in 1981 and suddenly visual effects were very much in demand.
Much of the discourse around experimental film in early nineties-even in the mid-to-late eighties-was that that mainstream culture in the eighties had appropriated these alternative styles, these methods as styles. gg
Gabriele Knapstein : Filmic projections beyond Cinema : From expanded cinema to the cinematographic installation
In the 60s, The large-scale cinematographic installation developed into a form that has enjoyed steadily increasing acceptance in museums and galleries as the film or video installation. Visual artists began to work with multiple projections, which they coordinated with the surrounding space. They used the exhibition space in ways that expanded the field of projection.
The term “cinematographic installation” defined by Juliane Rebentisch :In the installation, the moving image is not fixed to any specific presentational format. IT is distributed across various monitors or screens, around corners, on ceilings, at the center of the space. …
Artists in the 60s and 70s worked primarily with 16mm, Super-8, and 35mm film. 그리고 기술발전에 따라서 80년대 들어와서는 The art of cinematographic installation has been dominated by the video projection.
60년대 : Andy Warhol, Nam June Paik, Carolee Schneeman, Valie Export, Peter Weibel, …
In the presentation of films within the context of screenings and action art, the projections of visual artists remained bound to modes of presentation characteristic of the cinema as an institution. .. Also emerging during the 60s were the first cinematographic installations.
프로젝션 설치는 60년대 처음으로 등장한다.
it linked to specific spatial situations. 여기서 관객의 역할도 바뀐다. 좀 더 자발적이어야 한다. 즉, radical individualization of the experience of film becomes manifest. The beholder of the cinematographic installation is thrown back upon his or her own resources.
Robert Whitman /
1970s : Robert Morris / Dan Graham
Bruce Nauman / Dennnis Openheim
visitors to cinematographic installations cannot avoid reflecting upon their positions in space, and must decide how to move within this space while they gradually register the vaious filmic images and any additional objects. Visitors become aware, moreover, that their own experience of time deviate from the temporal progression of the filmic material.
these 60s의 경향을 must be seen in the context of the praxis of Expanded cinema. The praxis of Expanded cinema must be seen in connection with the activities of filmmakers, visual artists, musicians, dancers, poets, therater and action artists, …
This is not a stylistic concept referring to a specific tendency, but is rather a general designation for all works that go beyond the individual filmic projection. 서로 모든 분야가 영향을 주고 받았다는게 중요하다.
Expanded art.라고 봐야한다.
during the 60s, with the cinematographic installation, they also developed a format for relating explicitly to exhibition spaces lying beyond cinema, in the form of long-term presentations that transcended the customary modes of presentation associated itself in the world of visual art, and has developed further since the 80s in the form of film and video installations, while more recently, video and computer technologies have also been deployed with growing frequency.
Joachim Jager : Caught between Images : The heightened Perception of the Filmic
Artists Doug Aitken, Stan Douglas, Gary Hill, Pipilotti Rist emphasize the fleeting quality of medium. Here, film functions less as a window onto a grand illusion and instead as a medium of reflection on the potentialities of film. Projections onto several screens or within specially designed architectural and shifting points of view. In place of the screening of a single film, as in the cinema, we are confronted by multiple points of view and perspectives. These demand a heightened mode of perception while compelling viewers to question their own standpoint.
The landscape of the filmic space can be entered; by traversing it, the viewer becomes a traveler and researcher of this desolate island.
Doug Aitken “In my installations I don’t see the narrative ending with the image on the screen. Every inch of the work or the artchitecture is a component of narrative”
The boundaries between film and space, between filmic adn real worlds, become fluid; at times the viewer is absorbed completely by the totality of the installation.
these approaches to opening up to the surrounding space can be traced back to concepts current during the late eighties and nineties when artists such as Gary Hill, Stan Douglas and Diana Thater developed projections with a strong focus on spatial momtnes, and which deliberately renounced narrative structures in any conventional senses.
이 같은 spatial projection 의 기원을 작가는 1900년대의 panorama로부터 찾는다.
In this all-encompassing use of space, the art of projection, now situated beyond cinema, continues in the tradition of cinema’s historical point of departure around 1900. especially the art of panorama, which enjoyed enormous popularity in the nineteenth century.
As with multiple projections in space, the viewpoint of the panorama viewer is not fixed, but instead mobile.
In filmic works, moreover, in complete contrast to painted pictures, the viewer experiences temporal succession, making any unified view impossible. This recourse on the part of video and film artists to the aesthetics of the panorama does not imply a striving to heighten reality, as with the historical panorama, bu instead to heighten artificiality.
멀티 스크린의 기원을 로버트 라우센버그에서 찾는다. 60년대 미술로부터 찾는다.
motages of multiple, juxtaposed films, screens. (Doug Aitken의 작업을 예로 들면서)
This aesthetic of spatial montage is rooted in the artistic strategies of the 60s, designed to break with the closed character of the work of art and to replace it with heterogeneous, open structures. Rorbert Rauschenberg is of special relevance n the context of such multiperspectivality. This non-discriminating aesthetic has been described as a “Vernacular Glance,” one that reproduces life’s multiplicity unfiltered and without judgment, thereby inviting viewers to endow these montages with their own meaning.
즉 결과적으로 viewer의 지위가 상승한다.
This type of radical juxtaposition-inspired by Rauschenberg’s great mentors John Cage and Merce Cunningham-became a leitmotiv of the explosive expansion of the art after 1962: from Pop ARt, Minimalism and Fluxua, to the Happening and Performance Art, all the way to video art and film.
예를 들어 라우센버그의 free collage/ montage works..
Growing out of the experiental film context under the watchword of “Expanded cinema”, was a broad film art movement that explored the potentialities of the medium in great depth. (Gene Youngblood) 이것은 예술계 전반에 영향을 미쳤다. Andy Warhol 등.
These attempts culminated around 1965 in elaborate multimedia actiosn that brought together film, slideshows, light shows, overhead projections and real actions involving theater, dance and music. An exemplary instance is the series of events organized by Andy Warhol and billed as the Exploding Plastic Inevitable, which involved up to forty simultaneous film and slide projections as well as live appearances by rock musicians, including greats such as the Velvet Underground…
그렇다면 이 60년대 이후로 90년대 비디오아트와의 차이점이 무엇인가??
The essential difference between the 90s and the 60s lies in today’s far more technically and visually advanced deployment of filmic resources, and in a return to narrative.
이 세대는 Issac Julien, Aernout Mik, Anri Sala, Ugo Rondinon, … 등.
큰 차이점은 대중 이 이미 웬만큼의 영상매체 영상형식에 ‘익숙’해 졌다는 점이다. mass media의 영향.
– 이를 Vilem Flusser는 “accelerated viewer”라고 했다.
Technically possible otday are visual collages on large projection screens of the kind achievable earlier by such experimental filmmakers such as Andy Warhol and Michael Nsow only using conventional 16mm projections.
but the change is significant: the media generation of the 90s and beyond can assume that each viewer has an entire mental library of visual library of visual experiences drawn from the mass media, all the way from film to advertising posters.
Today filmic montage an multipart video and film installations no longer operate under the aegis of enlightenment impulses, nor do they attempt to probe new perceptual possibilities. Instead they are based on the results of such previous efforts, on an expanded mode of vision.
Vilem Flusser spoke of the “accelerated viewer” who has learned, in the face of a daily flood of visual stimuli, to integrate images and segments of images more quickly.
The leaps, breaks, and shifts of viewpoint seen in contemporary video and film projection are not based solely on collage/monatge techniques, or on a deliberate recourse to aesthetic models such as that of the panorama, but instead on an altered vision of the outer world.
기술적 성장과 과거의 탐구들을 바탕으로 하여, 현재의 비디오 아트는 오히려 외부 세계- 관객 등-의 altered vision에 영향을 받게 되었다.
The extreme openness of today’s film and video projections, where the boundaries between film and space become fluid, and where vieweres are expected to choose their own viewpoints, only reflects
the abitrary natrue of the contemporary image. In this connection, Jonathan Crary has called the attention to the tempo of change set in contemporary life by the electronic media: “What is significnat in not so-called content of website, DVDs, CDs, video games, etc., but the sheer rapidity with which new devices and formats succeed one another. We have become habituated to the idea that switching out attention quickly and continually from one thing to another is natural and inevitable. Life becomes an anxiety-filled sequence of replacements and upgraades. Perception itself is so closely aligned with these rhythms that one of its main activities is continually adjusting to these shifts and permutations.”
현 시대의 비디오 아트가 매우 open되게 된 것에 대해서 조나단 크래리는 전자기기들의 영향이 크고, 빠른속도의 발전, 변화에 익숙해진 것을 꼽는다.
그렇다면 2010이후의 smart device는 어떤가??? 이제는 지극히 개인화 되는 display.
Anette Husch : On the Claviature of Cinema, or: The Side of Art
Experimental film, underground film, auteur cinemra, expanded cinema, the art film: the range of artistic film production is enormous, and is present not only in the museum context, but has been present in the conventional cinematic context for even longer. Within these familiar spatial parameters, and without renouncing conventional settings or the immobile spectator, investigations of film going beyond traditional narrative cinema have analyzed filmic structures, exploited openness, along with the possibilities of alternative narrative forms.
Artists have always been interested in new technologies, and artistic experimentation with the filmic medium began at the lateest in the twenties. The New American Cinema Group, founded in 1960, inaugrated a system that represented an alternative to the commercial film industry, and promoted the development of diverse of forms of experimental film. Beginning in the sixties, artistic confrontations with the moving iamge have been stimulated by a series of technical developments, ranging fro the hand-held video camera to lighter and hence more mobile projection devices. Availalbe today alongside familiar formats such as 16 or 35mm film are technologies of visual registration that are filmic in the wider sense, such as video or the digital video format DVCam.
Are there true and false images, good and bad ones? Questions regarding such moral, aesthetic, and technical hierarchies were investigated as early Plato, in his distinction between phantasmagoria and allegoreie. in Allegory of Cave.
from the disscovery of camera obscura all the way to modern techniques of creatin gilllusion such as film and video, technically produced images have been particularly vulnerable to the reproach of falsity.
Given the fact that contemporary reality is an intrinsically artificial one, this characteristic of artificiality which is also inherent to the medium of the projection-is reiterated in artistic confrontations with contemporary civilization. Now that our entire environment bears the imprint of technological interventions.