Outer and inner space : INTRODUCTION



but in low-resolution formats that have been described “not only prohibitively expensive, but ludicrously unfaithful to the transmitted iamge” p.1.
-주석 :

To a large extent, the challenge of video art stems from its format and reflects its early struggle to distinguish itself from the other media that made its birth possible, in particular television and filml.
video presents a different model of spectatorship. as a time-based medium. Video unfolds at the artists’ discretion. Viewer functions as a knid of performer.
싱글 채널 비디오와 멀티 채널 비디오에서 관객의 역할은 다르다.
그러나 초기 싱글 채널 비디오에서의 관객은 현재의 멀티 채널 비디오의 관객 역할과 비슷하다.
The monitor has generally called for a stationery viewer while it presents its movements over time.

1980s video monitor defined the medium’s physical appearance.
closed circuit video / pre-recorded tapes..

Video projection came to replace the monitor as the central means of display in public settings over the cousre of the 1990s.

1965 백남준 최초 포타팩
1965 Andy Warhol “Outer and Inner space” 최초. 유일의 앤디 워홀이 한 비디오+필름 설치.
this is his only work combining video and film and his first double-screen film.
early 1970s : 최초로 프로젝션 사용. Peter Campus with Keith Sonnier 그러나 매우 나쁜 퀄리티.
low resolution formates.
1976 : 백남준 최초 멀티 모니터 설치 fish flies..
1980s : 백남준 비디오 프로젝션 사용.
late 1980s : improvements in projection technology gave this method a decisive edge over monitors. A New generation of artists embraced the high production values of cinema, often using filmd and video in combination.
Doug Aitken / Steve McQueen / Wiliam Kentridge /

early 1990s : projector 기술발전 –>
large scale / high definition video installation offers the means to make enveloping spectacles of moving light and sound, especially when using multiple simultaneous projections.
embrace of cinematic aesthetic replaces the alternative aspirations of early single-channel video.
동시에 film도 사용. 16, 35mm 필름 촬영.
cinema quality / cinema effects.
Bill Viola /


이전에는 너무 질이 낮아서 전시에 쓸 수 없었음.
즉, 퀄리티의 문제인가?
Early video : 1960 / 1970s : video art emerged parallel to Conceptual Art, Performanace Art, Process Art. de-emphasis of the finished obeject in favor of direct expression of the original idea or working process.
video 이 시기에는 low quality, no edigint low market value.. 등. 그래서 radical할 수 있었다. 그래야만 했을수도 있다.
그러나 지금의 The sophistication and visual power of recent projected video has allowed it to break out of the box of the monitor and more effectively compete with other media for the attention of viewers and collectors.

1990s : projection-based video installations became omnipresent and sometimes omnipotent on the circuit of contemporary internationals, bienalle, and major exhibitions.

1992 Documenta : video 급부상.
1992 :At the Documenta 9, video art in general took a more prominent place than ever before.
Stan Douglas / Tony Oursler / Bill Viola made memorable contributions.
venice Biennales
1997 : Pipilotti Rist
1999 : Doug Aitken / Shirin Neschat
2001 : Pierre Huyge / Janet Cardiff & George Bures

Hugo Boss award (Guggenheim museum)
1998 : Douglas Gordon

Turner Prize : Tate museum
1996 : Douglas Gordon
1997 : Gillian Wearing
1999 : Steve McQueen
2008 : Mark Leckey
2012 : Elizabeth Price
2013 : Laure Prouvost
2014 : Duncan Campbell

1999 Carnegie International top award : William Kentridge : animation
1999 Whitney Museum of American Art. Biennale Exhibition Bucksbaum Prize : Paul Pfeiffer

2000s: 비디오 too much.
2001 Venice : projected bideo installations overpowered the show-too many darkened rooms with moving images, more time-based work than a viewer could possbily take in.

그렇다면 이 비디오 설치와 시네마의 차이가 무엇인가?
초기의 비디오 작업들이 형식을 share했던 TV에 굉장히 비판적이었던 것에 비하면 현재의 비디오 작업은 시네마를 형식적으로 차용하고 있음에도 불구하고 시네마에 비교적 덜 critical하다.
Viedo as projection veered toward film, borrowing some of its thunder and maintaining less critical distance than early video art did from television. Projection based installations do differ markedly from film.
Distinctions between the two media related to how they record and display information. distinct visual languages for framing and presenting time and space.
Traditionally film has aimed transport audience into its fictional realm.
Video installations draw attention to the viewer as being external to the imagery.
film : 관객을 현실을 잊게 만든다. 분리함. 관조. stationery audience
video installation : 관객으로 하여금 현실에 질문하게 한다. 관객의 역할 중시함. active participants who move through the surrounding space. The heightened awareness of the conditions of spectatorship.

Much earlier single-channel work also takes the role of the observer as a central subject: Vito Acconci / Joan Jonas / Bruce Nauman –> these works and many others actively explore the viewer’s identityd. The relationship between artists and viewers.

Andy Warhol: Outer and Inner Space
: his use of two media video and film in the same piece, the split-screen format, and electronic manipulation of the video image. it also provides a brilliant meida art precedent for considering the relationship between outside and inside, surface and depth, outer appearance and inner awareness.

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