The allusive eye. Illusion, Anti-illusion, Allusion
: Peter Weibel
이 글은 ZKM에서 있었던 FAST FORWARD 1, 2003전시 도록서문이다.
이 글에서 peter는 아트가 어떻게 변화해 가는지를 illusion –> anti-illusion –> allusion으로 파악한다.
현재는 viewer가 그 이전 어느때보다도 visual lauguage에 대한 정보, reference가 많은 시대이므로 작가, 작업은 어떠한 내용을 ‘암시’,suppose, assumes할 수 있는 단계인 것이다. 이 aesthetics of assumption.
allusive technique들을 통해서 결국 narrative 성격의 작업이 많아지는데, 작가는 작업을 통해서 illusion/ anti-illusion, narration/anti-narration, figurative/abstraction 사이를 조율할 수 있다. 현재의 media art는 따라서 allusive하다고 본다.
또한 Peter는 현재 세계의 모든 것은, scripted, coded 되어 있다고 본다. –> 흥미로운 부분.
이 code of articulation이 mass media를 비롯한 모든 분야를 지배하고 그렇기 때문에 content의 내용보다 그것이 전달되는 형식이 더 중요해 진다고 이야기한다. what <= how
따라서 작가들은 작업을 통해서 이 scripted된 world를 자신만의 고유한 script로 해석한다.
고려할 부분은 이것이 2003년 글이라는 점.
1960s saw a paradigm change from illusion to anti-illusion.
이 시기의 land art에 대해서 , From avant-garde music, Fluxus
and happenings through Action Art, Body Art and Arte Povera to Land Art, Process Art and
The inner world of materials, whether of lead, felt, fat, oil, .. etc., shaped the form and non-form of the picture or the sculpture. These processes of materials replace the work of art as a product, and created at least the conditions for the product.
The obsession with materials not only went along with a refusal of illustration and representation, but was in general characterized by the gesture of the Enlightment and anti-illusion.
Avant-garde film in particular proceeded from the conditions and materiality of film, from the conditions of perception, of projection, of the movie theater,the celluloid, etc., and developed from these "structural film", "material film" and "expanded cinema"
Avant-garde film and with it media art, formed, so to speak, the vanguard of this avant-garde of anti-illusion, and it also then gained entry into the classical art forms of painting and sculpture.
The 1960s thus formed a watershed between the epoch and practice of illusion and the epoch
and practice of anti-illusion. In the 1970s, the art of anti-illusion came to an end in the public consciousness, for in the 1980s the painting of illusion ruled the roost.
Under the pressure of the mass media, which had developed into the central site for the generation of illusion, the avant-garde favored all the more vehemently destruction, deconstruction and anti-illusion, the exit from the picture. With the return of figurative and expressive painting, illusion too
returned to the realm of art.
Thus the art of the 20th century can be squeezed not only into the binary oppositions of figurative and
abstract, material and non-material, representational and non-representational, but also into that of illusion and anti-illusion, in which the avant-garde defined itself as anti-illusionary.
It was the media artists of the 1960’s and 1970’s (avant-garde film and video art) who were mainly responsible for the anti-illusionary mentality, and after their bitter experience that the return of the art of illusion in the painting of the 1980s pushed them to the sidelines,marginalized them and in many cases even wiped them out, the younger generation of media artists of the 1990s learned their lesson.
They no longer placed themselves in the antiillusionary tradition of the media avant-garde because they saw in this tradition the cause of the avant-garde’s failure, but rather directly in that of mainstream illusion, for example of Hollywood films or music videos, which these artists then appropriated or deconstructed with
the techniques of the slowing down or acceleration of shots and sound-track, taken over from the media avant-garde of the 1960s and 70s.
Precisely through the mixture of practices of narration and illusion, as we know them from the mass media of film and television from psycho-dramas to talk shows, with the practices of anti-illusion and anti-narration, a new practice has in the best cases (for example, Gabriel Orozco and Anri Sala) arisen, which we would like call “allusion”.
The media generation of the 1990s assumes that every viewer already has a library of visual experiences, fed by the mass media from films to billboards, stored in his head. This universe of multiple references is that of the famous post-modernism, from architecture to music, from art to film. Supposé is the key word of
the aesthetic of allusion. It is assumed, it is presupposed, that the viewer knows this and that.
An aesthetics of the “given”, which assumes and presupposeshas become the central dogma of a whole visual culture. In the post-modern universe of allusion it is assumed of any viewer that he knows all the images, and the charm of the reaction lies in the reference to these images.
through the allusive technique also lend them a degree of abstraction and unreality. The methods of allusion thus allow the artist to regulate the degree of narration and anti-narration, of figuration and abstraction.
The techniques of allusion permit stories about the state of the world.
The fifty-one media artists of the Goetz Collection presented at the ZKM exhibition take us on a journey into the heart of the present.
The merit of the Goetz Collection is deliberately to have assembled the phase of allusory art which came after the illusory and anti-illusory phases and which has been decisive for the development of media art today.
artists tell of the world in other ways than do the mass media.
These are images of an art whose visual vocabulary has a high degree of complexity.
The danger of anti-illusory art was simplicity and tautology. The dangers of allusory art are complexity and mannerism.
The allusive technique of narration in the visual media signifies a further development of the literary plot and almost a break with it, with the literary structuring of a narrative.
Nevertheless, the allusive narrative follows a script. It could be said that the media art of the 1990s up to the present follows a script, is scripted. It does not follow the plot of a story. A story is something other than a script. A script means rules or codes.
codes of articulation. In the mass media, in politics, in TV news, we experience daily the subtleties and finesse of the code of articulation, how something is formulated. How something is said is more important than its content.
This scripted world corresponds in art to the scripted method. An aesthecis of assumption is supposed to uncover a world of assumption respectively. The essence of allusive media art consists of offering the artist the possibility of rendering the script of the world recognizable through his own script.