documenta 6 (1977)

documenta 6 (1977)

documenta6

documenta VI
26 June – 2 October 1977
Kassel

documenta 6 of 1977 faced the task of formulating an independent, new definition of the concept of the thematic exhibition following the extensive, encyclopaedic concept the preceding documenta adopted. The media concept of d6, devised by artistic director Manfred Schneckenburger, attempted to rephrase the question about the position of art in the media society, and to do justice to the concept of art as an independent area nevertheless rooted in society, and responsible towards it.

Schneckenburger based his notion of art on three generations of technical media: Photography was presented through an extensive retrospective that not only attempted to document the medium’s technical aspects and developments, but also its communicative and content-related aspects. It was joined by film and video. Alongside several video installations, e.g. Ulrike Rosenbach’s “Herkules-Herakles-King Kong” (1976) or Bill Viola’s “He Weeps for You” (1976), the documenta established itself for the first time on TV: Week for week tapes from the exhibition’s video library were broadcast by public television stations.

In keeping with the desire to explore the problematic relationship between art and social reality, the sculptures of d6 were often conceived as “art in the public domain” and presented, next to the traditional location in the Karlsaue Park, above all in front of the Museum Fridericianum. Thus, Richard Serra’s monumental sculpture “Terminal” (1977), a huge structure of iron slabs and Walter de Maria’s “Vertical Earth kilometre” (1977), a bronze pole weighing 12-tons, which transformed the Friedrichsplatz into a building site when it was sunk into the earth prior to the opening of d6, signaled art’s claim to participate in society, even though such actions sometimes provoked strong public reactions. At the same time, such sculptures illustrated in an exemplary fashion the altered sculptural issues of Postminimalism and Land Art, movements not only marked by a different understanding of material, but also by a move out of the traditional museum rooms and a shift in dimensions towards the monumental. In his contribution to documenta 6, Joseph Beuys likewise sought to interpret social references within contemporary art, by laying a system of communicating pipes and hoses through the Fridericianum, which were fed with honey from the “Honey pump at the workplace” located centrally in the staircase rotunda. This installation as a system of spatial connections sought to symbolize metaphorically the character of contemporary art as an organic whole that forms an independent society.

Other documenta exhibits also aimed to explore the media conditions to which contemporary art must relate: A large-scale exhibition of artists’ books illuminated the inherent paradoxes of a medium that is technically mass reproducible yet is frequently treated as artistically unique. In the Orangerie a show of contemporary drawings were linked to a similar presentation in documenta 3. On display were 700 drawings by 200 artists (from Pablo Picasso to Douglas Huebler), whereby much space was devoted to American artists, who – with the exception of Jackson Pollock – were totally excluded in 1964. In contrast to documenta 3, the drawings were not arranged chronologically but by subject.

Beyond this, Socialist Realist art from East Germany was also on display, represented by the works of painters Willi Sitte, Bernhard Heisig, Werner Tübke and Wolfgang Mattheuer as well as sculptors Jo Jastram and Fritz Cremer. The presentation of this official East German art became the section of the exhibition most talked about, and prompted some Western participants, amongst them Georg Baselitz and Gerhard Richter, to withdraw their contributions.

Artistic Director
Manfred Schneckenburger

Artists:
Berenice Abbott
Hermann Albert
Carl Andre
Ben d’Armagnac
Christian Ludwig Attersee
Vito Acconci
Pierre Alechinsky
Theo Angelopoulos
Arman (Armand Fernandez)
Bernhard Aubertin
Valerio Adami
Gerhard Altenbourg
Ottomar Anschütz
Fernando Arrabal
Joannis Avramidis
Robert Adamson
Robert Altman
Horst Antes
Eduardo Arroyo
Alice Aycock
Peter Ackermann
Anatol
Ant Farm
Art & Language
Billy Adler
Gisela Andersch
Shusaku Arakawa
David Askevold
Chantal Akerman
Laurie Anderson
Diane Arbus
Eugène Atget
Francis Bacon
Monika Baumgartl
Joseph Beuys
Fernando Botero
Kevin Brownlow & Andrew Mollo
Michael Badura
Hippolyte Bayard
Michael von Biel
Margaret Bourke-White
Günter Brus
Eduard Denis Baldús
Thomas Bayrle
Werner Bischof
Mathew B. Brady
Anatol Brosilowsky
Balthus
Cecil Beaton
Louis-Auguste Bisson & Auguste-Rosalie Bisson
Brassaï (Gyula Halász)
Wojciech Bruszewski
Joachim Bandau
Bernd und Hilla Becher
Irma Blanck
George Brecht
Luis Buñuel
Jared Bark
Stephan Beck
Karl Blossfeldt
KP Brehmer
Chris Burden
Robert Barry
Bill Beckley
Bernhard Blume
George Hendrik Breitner
Daniel Buren
Jennifer Bartlett
John Ernest
Joseph Bellocq
Mel Bochner
Heinz Breloh
Scott Burton
Gianfranco Baruchello
Carmelo Bene
Peter Bogdanovich
Robert Bresson
Michael Buthe
Giorgio Batistella
Franz Bernhard
Claus Böhmler
Stuart Brisley
James Lee Byars
Gerd Baukhage
Jean-Marie Bertholin
Blythe Bohnen
Jürgen Brodwolf
Horst H. Baumann
Nuccio Bertone
Karl Bohrmann
Marcel Broodthaers
Bodo Baumgarten
Jean-Louis Bertucelli
Christian Boltanski
Stanley Brouwn
Enzo Cacciola
Robert Capa
Barbara Chase-Riboud
Pinchas Cohen-Gan
Michael Craig-Martin
Julia Margaret Cameron
Henri Cartier-Bresson
Eduardo Chillida
James Collins
Fritz Cremer
Colin Campell
Etienne Carjat
Christo
Miguel Condé
José Luis Cuevas
Peter Campus
Ugo Carrega
Chryssa
Tony Conrad
Edward Curtis
Louis Cane
Lewis Carroll
Chuck Close
Steven Cortright
Veassis Caniaris
Claude Chabrol
Harold Cohen
Claudio Costa
Miodrag Djuric (Dado)
Douglas Davis
Walter De Maria
Jim Dine
Juan Downey
Louis Daguerre
Ger Dekkers
Agnes Denes
Henry + Bool Alfred + John Dixon
Peter Downsborough
Hanne Darboven
Willem de Kooning
Fred Deux
Dore O.
Michael Druks
Alan Davie
Philip Henry Delamotte
Jan Dibbets
Ugo Dossi
Marcel Duchamp
John Davies
Jack Delano
Braco Dimitrijevic
Christian Dotremont
David Douglas Duncan
Don Eddy
Paul Eliasberg
Heinz Emigholz
Ulrich Erben
Walker Evans
Benni Efrat
Ger van Elk
Ed Emshwiller
Hugo Erfurth
Valie Export
Sergej Eisenstein
Peter Henry Emerson
Leo Erb
Garth Evans
Öyvind Fahlström
Federico Fellini
Dan Flavin
Charles Frazier
Lee Friedlander
Herbert Falken
Roger Fenton
Richard Fleischer
Hermine Freed
Hamish Fulton
Ralston Farina
Armand Fernandez
Lucio Fontana
Will Frenken
Heidi Fasnacht
Vincenzo Ferrari
Fred Forest
Achim Freyer
Rainer Werner Fassbinder
Robert Filliou
Terry Fox
Gisèle Freund
Hans-Peter Feldmann
Wolfgang Gäfgen
Jochen Gerz
Tina Girouard
Dan Graham
Nancy Graves
Abel Gance
Paul-Armand Gette
Michael Gitlin
Eve Gramatzki
Alan Green
Alexander Gardner
Peter Gidal
Wilhelm von Gloeden
Tom J. Gramse
Marty Greenbaum
Winfred Gaul
Wolfram Giersbach
Jean-Luc Godard
Gotthard Graubner
Alberto Grifi
Rupprecht Geiger
Gilbert & George
Hubertus Gojowczyk
Nancy Graves
Robert Grosvenor
Michael Geissler
Frank Gilette
Kuno Gonschior
Walter Grasskamp
Hetum Gruber
Arnold Genthe
Raimund Girke
Camille Graeser
Gotthard Graubner
Renato Guttuso
Roel D’Haese
Haus-Rucker-Co
Wilhelm Hein
Lewis Hine
Nan Hoover
Helfried Hagenberg
Erich Hauser
Bernhard Heisig
Leon Hirszman
Rebecca Horn
David Hall
Lady Hawarden
Michael Heizer
Antonius Höckelmann
Horst P. Horst
Nigel Hall
Ron Hays
Al Held
David Hockney
George Hoyningen-Huene
Phillipe Halsman
Tim Head Werner Herzog
Anatol Herzfeld
Alfred Hofkunst
Richard Hamilton
Erwin Heerich
Eva Hesse
Rudolf Hoflehner
Douglas Huebler
Heijo Hangen
Axel Heibel
David Octavius Hill
Edgar Hofschen
Danièle Huillet
Noriyuki Haraguchi
Birgit Hein
John Hilliard
Hans Hollein
Alfonso Hüppi
Karl Horst Hödicke
Shohei Imamura
Will Insley
Jean Ipoustéguy
Patrick Ireland
Hans Paul Isenrath
Ken Jacobs
Paul Jaray
Jasper Johns
Francis Benjamin Johnston
Miklós Jancsó
Jo Jastram
J. Douglas Johnson
Donald Judd
Horst Janssen
Alejandro Jodorowsky
Joan Jonas
Martha Jungwirth
Wolf Kahlen
Buster Keaton
Jürgen Klauke
Beril Korot
Ferdinand Kriwet
Max Kaminski
Ellsworth Kelly
Alexander Kluge
Joseph Kosuth
Germaine Krull
Howard Kanovitz
Michael Kenny
Werner Knaupp
Jannis Kounellis
Shigeko Kubota
Tadeusz Kantor
André Kertész
Günther Knipp
Andras Kovács
Stanley Kubrick
Allan Kaprow
Anselm Kiefer
Milan Knížák
Attila Kovács
Gary Kuehn
Dani Karavan
Harry Kipper
Imi Knoebel
Kurt Kren
Marin Karmitz
Alain Kirili
Alice Kochs
Dieter Krieg
Gertrude Kasebier
Ronald B. Kitaj
Christof Kohlhöfer
Richard Kriesche
On Kawara
Konrad Klapheck
Jiří Kolář
Les Krims
Willem de Kooning
László Lakner
Barry Le Va
Michael Leisgen
Lawrence Lobe
Urs Lüthi
Arthur Lamothe
Russell Lee
Les Levine
Francisco Lopez
Georg Platt Lynes
Richard Landry
Jean Le Gac
Sol LeWitt
Antonio Lopez-Garcia
Nikolaus Lang
Gustave Le Gray
Roy Lichtenstein
Joseph Losey
Dorothea Lange
Malcolm Le Grice
Richard Lindner
Bernhard Luginbühl
John Latham
Barbara Leisgen
Michael Lingner
Bernhard Lüthi
Heinz Mack
Kenneth Martin
Gerhard Merz
Alexander Mitta
Robert Morris
Nino Malfatti
Charles Marville
Mario Merz
Milan Mölzer
Alfons Maria Mucha
Felix H. Man (Hans Baumann)
Roberto Matta
Borg Mesch
Bernard Moninot
Ugo Mulas
Robert Mangold
Gordon Matta-Clark
Anette Messager
Henry Moore
Antoni Muntadas
Andy Mann
Wolfgang Mattheuer
Adolphe de Meyer
Stefan Moore
Walter Murch
Werner Mantz
Cynthia Lee Maughan
Duane Michals
Carmengloria Morales
J.-J. Murphy
Piero Manzoni
Antony McCall
Henri Michaux
Marcello Morandini
Zoran Mušič
Giacomo Manzù
Barry McCallion
Rune Mields
Pit Morell
Eadweard Muybridge
Robert Mapplethorpe
Bruce McLean
Antoni Miralda
François Morellet
Brice Marden
Syd Mead
Josef Mikl
Maria Moreno
Agnes Martin
Dariush Mehrjui
Joan Miró
Malcolm Morley
Tomitaro Nachi
Bruce Nauman
Wolfgang Nestler
Joseph Nicephore Niepce
Maria Nordman
Félix Nadar
Charles Nègre
Richard Newton
Ansgar Nierhoff
Gabriele & Helmut Nothhelfer
Maurizio Nannucci
Werner Nekes
Max Neuhaus
Richard Nonas
Lev V. Nussberg
Dore O.
Timothy O’Sullivan
Roman Opalka
Nagisa Oshima
Oswald Oberhuber
Claes Oldenburg
Dennis Oppenheim
Jean Otth
Brian O’Doherty
Claudio Olivieri
Anna Oppermann
Hilmar Pabel
Giulio Paolini
A. R. Penck
Pablo Picasso
Lucio Pozzi
Nam June Paik
Eduardo Paolozzi
Peng-Wan-Ts
Otto Piene
Heinz-Günter Prager
Blinky Palermo
Gordon Parks
Beverly Pepper
Walter Pichler
Mario Prassinos
Magnus Palsson
Sergei Paradschanow
Elio Petri
Anne & Patrick Poirier
Panamarenko
Pier Paolo Pasolini
Wolfgang Petrick
Sigmar Polke
Gina Pane
Max Peintner
Friederike Pezold
Don Potts
Isabel Quintanilla
Daniel Quintero
William Raban
John Reilly
Jacob August Riis
Peter Roehr
Ed Ruscha
David Rabinowitch
James Reineking
Bridget Riley
Ulrike Rosenbach
Ken Russell
Arnulf Rainer
Albert Renger-Patzsch
Klaus Rinke
James Rosenquist
Claude Rutault
Yvonne Rainer
Jean Renoir
Larry Rivers
Francesco Rosi
Reiner Ruthenbeck
Robert Rauschenberg
Alain Resnais
Jacques Rivette
Roberto Rossellini
Robert Ryman
Man Ray
Erich Reusch
Józef Robakowski
Dieter Roth
Éric Rohmer
Tony Ray-Jones
Hans Peter Reuter
Dorothea Rockburne
Arthur Rothstein
Martial Raysse
George Warren Rickey
Alexander Rodtschenko
Gerhard Rühm
Reindeer Werk
Hans Salentin
Tomas Schmit
Eugen Schönebeck
Michael Singer
Edward Steichen
Sohrab Shadid Saless
Wolfgang Schmitz
Martin Schwarz (Künstler)
Willi Sitte Saul Steinberg
Erich Salomon
Helmut Schober
Martin Scorsese
Neal Slavin
Frank Stella
Lucas Samaras
Eugen Schönebeck
George Segal
David Smith
Alfred Stieglitz
Fred Sandback
Ben Schonzeit
Antonio Seguí
Robert Smithson
Sir Benjamin Stone
August Sander
Rudolf Schoofs
Friedrich Seidenstücker
Fernando Ezequiel Solanas
Paul Strand
Sarkis Zabunyan
Jan Schoonhoven
Richard Serra
Michael Snow
Jean-Marie Straub
Antonio Saura
Werner Schroeter
Ben Shahn
Alan Sonfist
Liselotte Strelow
Konrad Balder Schäuffelen
Heinz Schubert
Joel Shapiro
Eve Sonneman
Michell Stuart
Georgij Schengalaja
Alf Schuler
Charles Sheeler
Keith Sonnier
Josef Sudek
Alexander Schleber
HA Schult
Stephen Shore
Daniel Spoerri
István Szábo
Barbara Schmidt-Heins
Bernard Schultze
Katharina Sieverding
Klaus Staeck
Gabriele Schmidt-Heins
Emil Schumacher
Charles Simonds
Ted Stamm
Jiro Takamatsu
Andrej Tarkowskij
George Trakas
Peter Tuma
Vassilakis Takis
André Thomkins
François Truffaut
Deborah Turbeville
William Henry
Fox Talbot
Jean Tinguely
Costas Tsoclis
Richard Tuttle
Antoni Tàpies
Gérard Titus-Carmel
Werner Tübke
Cy Twombly
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Lee U Fan
Timm Ulrichs
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