이 글의 후반부, 비디오 설치에 대한 부분은 명료하고 간결하게 설명 잘 하고 있다. 참조해라.
Michael Nash, ‘vision after television: Technocultural convergence, hypermedia and the new media arts field’ (1996) essay 체크해봐라. He goes on to note that distinct philosophical and stylistic shifts have muted the dichotomy between video art and television(1996, 383p) In short, the sense of hybridity in video art in the early 1990s led to critical television, metacritical media and activist advocacy.(383)… film and video have despite claims to the contrary, merged. Indeed, computers and digital technologies have so deeply affected both contemporary culture at large and image-making processes in particular that to speak of film and video as a ‘pure’ medium is next to impossible. (3p)
Rosalind Krauss ‘A voyage on the north sea’ 체크해봐라. an increasing use of live video sampling tools in club events; a renewed independent filmi movement featuring narrative experimentation, low-budget modes of production and, on occasion, a focus on overtly personal or political issues; a reinvestigation of the goals and projects of the classical avant-garde; the advent of digital graffitti; and a growing media-baseied culture not beholden to the constraints either of the feature narrative form, nor even of the movie theater. p.4.
the first answer has to do with a distinction between transcription and conversion….The film and analogue video reinforces a general-and controversial-supposition that we can represent reality….With both film and analogue video, the information we experience in its final form is analogous to the information in its original form… Analogue media store information through some kind of transcription which transfers the configuration of one physical material into an analogous arrangement in another. (p.5.)
With digital video, however, the process is fundamentally different. Rather than transcription, information recorded with digital video goes through a process of conversion. (p.6.)
While analogue video entails grappling with these often difficult challenges, digital video obviates them by offering greatly increased fidelity and malleability. (p.7.)
Anna Everett and John T. Caldwell’s term ‘digitexuality‘ combines the ubiquitous term digital with Julia Kristeva’s notion of intertextuality. digitextuality는 추후 공부해봐야 할 개념인 듯.
The Future of the Feature
Finally, cameras and other forms of cinematic technology never merely produce imaegs; they also produce technologies of vision. (인용해라.) (p.22.)
Laura Mulvey’s dictum, he says he strives for a sense of ‘passionate detachment’, such tat we are ever cognisant of the representational world as a highly fabricated construct. (p.39.)
digital technology has also sparked new kinds of media art, much of it hybrid in form and situated at the intersection of disparate art-making practices, including graphic design, illustration, digital film, motion graphics, sound, animation and computer art. (p.46.)
The arrival of the Macintosh computer played the most influential role in the evolution of moving artforms, no only in filmmaking, but in the formerly distinct worlds of graphic and broadcast design. (p.49.).. Computer was introduced to the field in the 1980s, designers began to layer and dissolve type and imagery-a practice that shattered the conception of a detached, objective reader’, explains Stephanie Zelman. .. The collision of text, graphics, moving images, and music is also the collision of disparate disciplines, which find their meeting point in the computer. By extension, many of practitioners in this far-ranging filed are not traditional video or film directors; instead, they are cross-disciplinary arists ,working across an expanding field. (p.50.)
Moving even further away from the realism of live-action footage, entirely animated shorts and music videos offer yet another category of new digital media. 드디어 애니메이션이나 모션 그래픽에 대한 이야기가 나오기 시작한다. 1990말에서부터 2000초까지 Even more remarkable is the program’s use of scalable vector graphics, which could be shown large or small with no loss of image quality, offering filmmakers a very large potential. (p.63.) New tools employed toward incredibly divergent ends. Taking the episodic animation format one step further, DJ와의 콜라보 작업도 이제 시작된다. Rather creating an illustration of the album, Matsumoto and Daft Punk instead find a point where the sound and image meet without hierarchy. (p.64.)
While digital technology has made video editing infinitley easier and faster, developing the ability to mix visual elements in real time the way DJs mix audio has been proven to be a greater challenge. (p.69) .. VJ techniques are extremely varied, from the adamantly low-tech to much more elaborate and sophisticated light shows. The tools, too, vary and include VidVox Prophet, a QuickTime video sampling program that works with a MIDI keyboards with video clips assigned to each key….Without the delays… The cross-pollination of interests and tools has resulted in an explosion of new work, much of it hovering at the intersection of music and video and a reinvention of the longstanding tradition of visual music. (p.72.)
Immersion and Excess in New Video Installation
It would be easy to read the entrance to these large-scale media installations as a means of drawing audiences back into these spaces with the spectacle of cinematic imagery.
Maggie Morse states, ‘the video in video installation stands for contemporary image-culture per se.’
“Each installation is an experiment in the redesign of the apparatus that represents our culture to itself. ”
More가 생각한 3가지의 비디오 설치 작업의 키 요소들.
1.its foundation in an increasingly image-based culture
2.its insistence on the role of body in the reception of the artwork
3.its attention to the larger appratuses of image culture
Amelia Jones “technophenomenological subject”: the technophenomenological subject is in a constant state of flux with the world around it and it is this subject conjured by many video art installations that attempt to reckon with the mutability of corporeal boundaries. (pp.76-77)
Video installation, in the ways in which it calls attention to the process of movement, interaction and conscious engagement, offers a very clear instance of the sort of relationship that occurs to render consciousness in Merleau-Ponty’s terms. ..
많은 경우 비디오 설치의 movement를 퐁티의 현상학과 연결짓는다. 물론 기본적으로 시네마 보다 movement가 적극적인 형태가 되었지만, 결국 live-action / narrative 때문에 진정한 movement라고 볼 수는 없다고 생각한다. 정지해서 보기는 봐야 하거든.
While it may be tempting to link video installation to the large-scale film projection events fo the 1960s and 1970s, most critics instead understand it to be an extension of Minimalism, body art, performance and conceptual art.This is not to say that there is no connection between film projection art and video installation; rather, the major interests of video artists as the artform took shape were not necessarily those of film artists, many of whom were intrigued by the creation of a shared image space described by Gene Youngblood.
Chrisse Iles argues that video installation can be broken into three stages.
1.first is a phenomenological and performative stage and refers to artwork that share Minimalism’s fascination wiht creating spaces within which a viewer engages with issues about status of the artwork, the viewer, scale, space, institutions and so on.
2. The second stage is sculptural, in which video installation’s concerns derive from sculpture and issues of space, form, and shape and so on.
3. Final stage is the cinematic stage in which video moves away from intersubjective engagement to rekindle the awe of the cinematic experience, now transported to disparate, non-theatrical settings. The moving image intersects with architecture to create new surfaces and planes that shift, augment or undermine traditional architectural space. (p.78.)
Viola, Gary Hill 등과 달리 Younger artists are bringing their disparate backgrounds and influences to the form, incorporating, for example, the fast-paced cutting and pop imagery of music videos and television commercials as seen in the works of Pipilotti Rist. Issac Julien, Douglas Gordon, Jeremy Blake, Rafael Lozano Hemmer.
Many other installation video works share in the historical avnat-garde’s desire to disrupt the power of the museum by sparking insights that illuminate the contradictions implicit in creating a locus for art that is separate from the outside world. Installation art, by its very being, calls into question the location of art. ….installation often act as a space within which the negotiation of boundaries. … The act of perception, reception and movment are emphasised and the installation becomes, in Thomas Zummer‘s analysis, an interface, a device through which viewers negotiate differing space, as well as the cultural status of art production and interpretation.
The world of contemporary video art. there are certain tendencies that are prominent. 작가는 이 것은 4가지로 든다.
1. Spatialised narratives
2. immersive installations
3. sculptural pieces
4.video projection in public spaces (p.79.)
1) Spatialised narrative : 이것은 멀티 프로젝션으로 인해서 가능해진다. narrative has become a central issue in video installation art from the mid-1990s onward. .. video artists working in installation more often play with storytelling, trying at once to deploy its power while undermining its hegemony. …placing narrative within spaces…4가지로 또 분류한다. Reduction and critique / the ambient narrative / the episodic narrative / spatialisation. (p.80.)
Reduction and critique
the ambient narrative : 이 부분은 electronic music의 영향도 받았다. by the pacing and rythmic cadences of electronic music. … many artists have adopted an ambient form of narrative, with repetition and variation being the primary organising principles, rather than the rising action… Doug Aitken의 작업을 예로 든다. drifting stories within soaces in an attempt to meld psychic and physical space., meandering pace of consciousness. … There is a story, but it drifts… seemingly aimless, offering a decidedly leisurely counterpoint to the bustle of contemporay urban life. Aitken의 작업은 뮤직비디오 감독 했던 것 으로부터 영향 많이 받았다. Aitken is very precise in how he stages the stories within the gallery and museums that host his work. (p.81.)
The episodic narrative : 이 부분은 텔레비전 영향 받아서 시리즈 처럼 제작한다. some artists are creating narratives that are fragments, designed to be interpreted or viewed sequentially. Stan Douglas예로 든다. ..The narrative universe becomes reversible and no longer reflects the psychology of cause and effect.
Spatialisation: some artists opted to multiply the screens on which we view their videos. … proliferation of screens … as well as an attempt to suggest that a story no longer needs the boundaries imposed by traditional cinematic narrative, either in terms of spatial or temporal continuity, or in terms of a conclusive ending. Eija -Liisa Ahtila, Issac Julien 예로 든다. ..with the use of scale and multiple screens.(p.83.) the narratives displayed in video art are often about space, fragments, and the abundance of meaning. Where Hollywood narratives tend to close things down, video art opens things up, dispersing meaning outward, both figuratively and literally, through the multiplication and dispersal of screens. Further, in disrupting narrative, video installation impedes its naturalised policing function-if traditional naraitive, especially as it is embodied in the programmatic and prescriptive codes of Hollywood cinema, tells us how to behave, video installation can, in some instances, offer a form that allows the questioning of those rules and norms. (p.84.)
The body in space : Immersive installations : phenomenological concerns regarding the body in space, and its connection to the image, also … Storytelling retreats, replaced by issues of immersion and the role of the mediated environment in relation to subjectivity. … video artists working in this realm create environments within which viewers engage with questions regarding perception, space, and body and ultimately, their relationship to the construction of subjectivity.
Amelia Jones : ’embodied rather than transcendental, as in process, as engaged with and contingent on others in the world, and as multiply identified rather than reducible to a single “universal” image of the self’…Somatically oriented video installations also dismiss or invert the hierarchies of form and content, mind and body, insisting on the role of the body in its interpretation of the world. Rather than valorising vision over and above the other senses, theses projects attempt to disperse perception, creating spaces within which the body as an entire entity experiences the artwork. As Maggie Morse explains in her essay “Video installation art: the body, the imaeg, and the space-in-between” (161페이지 참조.) Morse suggests, video installations allow for an embodied perception, one cognisant of the interplay between the body, space and the image. (p.85)
Jennifer Steinkamp :creates projects that invite somatic contemplation. her interest in light and projection began in a class taught by Gene Youngblood. Steinkamp added dimensionality. Using light, then she dematerialises artchitecture, creating illusionary spaces within real spaces. The idea of solid, Caratesian space dissolving, but one’s sense of somatic boundaries feels shaken, too. Steinkamp starts by mapping the actual space that she will be using…. Her interest in this transformation is not merely in creating sensations for viewers. She wants viewers to reconsider how we conceptualize our relationship with the physical world and with others.Also, the strict, binary divide between subject and object dissolves. (p.88.)
Artists create a direct confrontation between the body and the image, establishing a degree of engulfment as traditional spatial coordinates give way to the image space. In their video installation pieces, however, the imagery is less overwhelming in its impact, relying instead on juxtaposition and the arrangement of multiple screens, requiring viewers to inhabit the installation space with the full recognition that their apprehension of the artwork is invariably partial, limited by the viewer’s own physical limitations. 이러한 예로 Shirin Neschat.
The city as screen. moving video images are increasingly finding their way outside, into puglic spaces as gigantic projectins, interactive artworks and even digital graffiti. Krzysztof Wodiczko : fundamental construction of democracy, as ideas fundamental to his work. Public space is an enactment. .. and his projections are attempts to make the building exteriors embody the living, breathing inhabitants of urban spaces.
Rafael Lozano-Hemmer 그는 이 자신의 작업을 Relational Architecture라고 불렀다. Timothy Druckrey는 이에 대n해서 : his project, Amodal Suspension, visualizes but does not create illusions, communicates but does not create narratives, bridges the links between networks and frameworks. According to Hemmer, the term ‘relational architecture’ refers to the desire to establish new forms of relationship among people and their surroundings by creating performative environments using projected imagery and light, as well as other forms of technology such as web and cell phones. Interventions that alllow people to participate not only in the interrogation of the stability of that power, but to imagine more open, engaged mutable forms of public intervention and connection. (p.93.)
These projects underscore the ways in which institutional power and authority are situated in a panoptic culture. … not merely with tools of vision and imagery, but with the experiential negotiations of the borders between subject and world. … Wodiczko and Hemmer reflect the desire among many contemporary artists to create spaces for active public reflections.