The Post media condition : Peter Weibel (2012)

 The Post media condition : Peter Weibel (2012)

이 글은 결국 digital media 찬양적 분위기 a little bit dogmatic. 

그러나 디지털 아트 그 자체 보다는 이 매체가 예술 전반에 지각변동을 일으킨 것을 가장 큰 업적이라고 주장하고 있다.  Computer, the universal machine의 medium-specificity가 예술에 진정한 자유와 다양성을 선사했다.

작가는 인류사를 통틀어서 이분법적 서열이 존재해 왔다고 주장한다. Greek 시대에 Techne- episteme였고, Roman에는 Artes liberales- artes mechanicae였고, art-science대립 구조가 오랫동안 지속되었고, 예술이 liberal art로 인정받는데 까지 아주 오랜 시간이 걸렸다. 이 이분법적 관계는 현재는 art genre내부에 존재하게 되었는데, 따라서 현재 상황 전통적인 예술 장르-painting, sculpture에 비해서 media art가 저열한 것으로 취급받는다. techne로 여겨지는 것이다. 그러나 결국 digital media비로소 이 이분법적 서열을 무너트리고, 진정한 equal 상황을 만들어냈다고 주장한다. 이제는 디지털 뿐만 아니라, 모든 매체들이 equivalent해 졌다. 이것이 작가가 주장하는 post-medium condnition이다. 

I (techné – epistemé)

II (artes liberales – artes mechanicae)

III (The contest between the arts)

IV (speculum artium)

V (The doctrine of the Encyclopédie)

VI (The equality of materials and media)

VII (The post-media condition)

I (techné – epistemé)

Aristotle made no attempt to disguise his contempt of craftwork. the arts and crafts had a detrimental effect on the body’s physical condition and robbed the mind of the respite it required for sound reasoning.  this hierarchy of different forms of knowledge.  Hence Aristotle produced a commensurability of the aesthetic and social order. The hierarchy of the cuMarc society served as the foundation for the hierarchy of the arts and sciences. (1)

II (artes liberales – artes mechanicae)

The Romans adopted Aristotle’ distinction but added one significant shift to it. they now placed the Aristotelian distinction in the notion of the arts themselves. The distinction between epistemé and techné was replaced by the distinction between the artes liberales and the artes mechanicae. …What we know today as the sciences formed the artes liberales of the past, and the arts as we understand them today remained within the horizons of the techné.

III (The contest between the arts)

It was not until the emergence and rise of the middle cuMarces or bourgeoisie that painting, architecture and sculpture were finally promoted to the ranks of the liberal arts. The old artes liberals, once the sciences, today have become painting, sculpture and architecture, and in place of the old artes mechanicae we now have applied art and media art.

We devalue media artists by regarding them as mere exponents of technical reproducibility limited to the horizons of a machine and by assigning primacy to painting as an anthropomorphic principle and/or form of production.

Today’s division is regarded as the intuition and originality of the artist versus the forces of calculating reason and mechanical production. The contempt felt for the work of the craftsman has been replaced by the contempt for machine- and media-generated production. (2)

The intention is for our fields of knowledge to be extended and driven forward through a alliance of the mechanical media arts with the natural sciences, and hence for platforms and practices of democratic processes to be created with the aid of new technologies and methods.

Though derided by the liberal arts of today, it is the mechanical arts which actually serve a purely artistic purpose with works capable of revealing the commensurability of the aesthetic and social order.

Greek이후로 아트가 발전해온 양상이 그대로 이어지고 있다. 형태만 바꾸어서. 대척 관계들만 바뀌어진 채로. 

IV (speculum artium)

We are able to gauge the emancipation of slaves and waged labourers in the upgrading of the artes mechanicae with regard to the artes liberales and in the struggle of the media arts to achieve equality alongside the cuMarcic liberal arts such as painting or sculpture.

Hence we can justifiably posit that the development of participatory practices in the arts has its counterpart in the advancement of a participatory democracy and that these processes have a mutual effect on each other, just as the emergence of Greek sculpture was closely linked to the emergence of Greek democracy at that time. Since then, art has been an indispensable condition for a functioning democracy. (3)

저자는 art와 politic의 관계를 살피고 있다. 이것은 태초부터 필연적 관계였으며, 디지털 매체가 independect하기 떄문에 이 매체에 의한 예술의 자유도 가능했다고 믿는다.

V (The doctrine of the Encyclopédie)

instead, the spheres of ratio – reason – and the natural sciences served as a foil for the spheres of politics and art.

Diderot, who focused his attention on the arts mécaniciens, the crafts, and on technology as the langue des arts. Diderot wanted to abolish the distinction between the artes liberales and artes mechanicae as a device of cuMarc society; he wanted to change society by emancipating the mechanical arts.

In his opinion, the distinction between the free and the mechanical arts had degraded mankind. Above all, he pinned his hopes for changing and improving society on the dissemination of knowledge about the mechanical arts.

Knowledge of the mechanical arts would lead to a rational and fair society, just as we hope to find the same kind of society today in modern media arts and technologies such as the Internet. Diderot regarded the mechanical arts, technology and science as the foundation for enlightened politics. (4)

VI (The equality of materials and media)

매체 개념은 1920년대 러시아의 Vladimir Tatlin에 의해서 처음으로 강조되기 ㅣ작했다. 그리고 아방가르드에 이르러서야 처음으로 매체를 철저하게 분리하던 것에 도전했다. 

the avant-garde in the 1920s: they laid the foundations for an end to the contest between the arts and the start of equality among each of the artistic genres.

미디어 아트도 처음에는 media로서 recognition 위해서 분투했다. 모든 매체는 그 등장 시기에는 예술매체로 인정받기 위해서 노력한다. 

Hence the first phase of media art centred on achieving the same artistic recognition for the media of photography and film as was enjoyed by the traditional media of painting and sculpture… So tentatively at least, we can speak of equality among all the media and genres. (4)

VII (The post-media condition)

the pivotal successes of the new technical media consisting of video and computer are not just that they launched new movements in art and created new media for expression but that they also exerted a decisive influence on historical media such as painting and sculpture.

actually transformed the tree of art itself.

With the experiences of the new media we can afford to take a new look at the old media. With the practices of the new technological media we can also embark on a fresh evaluation of the practices of the old non-technological media. In fact we might even go so far as to say that the intrinsic success of the new media resides less in the fact that they have developed new forms and possibilities of art, but that they have enabled us to establish new approaches to the old media of art and above all have kept the latter alive by forcing them to undergo a process of radical transformation.–> 이 맥락에서 오히려 Krauss 의 obsolete / reinventing medium과 연결될 수 있을 것 같다. 

digital ‘Paint’ programs and the experience of working directly on the computer and the screen have given an unmistakably fresh impetus to painting.

We could therefore be tempted to ask whether the effects of the new media on the old media have actually been more successful than the works of the new media themselves. The central movens and the central agendas of 20th century art: the crisis of representation, the dissolution of the traditional notion of artwork and the disappearance of the author – all these factors are due to the emergence of the new media. (I think it is equally important )

The radical turn towards the culture of reception which occurred in the 20th century, the explosion of the visual in art and science, the pictorial turn, are all consequences of the new media.

All of the artistic disciplines have been transformed by the media. The impact of the media is universal. The media paradigm embraces all of the arts. 

This computational way of thinking, the impacts and successes of which have already captured the entire world.

is now complemented by the parallel emergence of the computational arts whose aim it also is to capture the entire world… they, too, are transforming all of the practices and forms of art.

Creativity itself is a transfer program, an algorithm.

The impact of the media is universal and for that reason all art is already post-media art. Moreover, the universal machine, the computer, claims to be able to simulate all of the media. Therefore all art is postmedia art. (5)

the specificity and idiosyncratic worlds of the media are becoming increasingly differentiated. Total availability of specific media or of specific properties of the media, from painting to film, is only possible in the post-media condition .

It is only thanks to the postmedia computer, the universal machine, that we can realise the abundance of possibilities which resides in the specificity of the media.

Hence in art there is no longer anything beyond the media. No-one can escape from the media.

2 phases of post-medic condition

1. the equivalence of the media and

2. the mixing of the media.

The first phase was about achieving equivalence of the media, about establishing the same artistic

recognition for the New Media : 첫번째 단계는 동등한 매체로서 인정받기 위한 단계, media-specfici idiosyncratic worlds of media

Painting has demonstrated the intrinsic value of paint, of flowing, dribbling and trickling. Photography has demonstrated its ability to portray objects realistically. Film has demonstrated its narrative capability. Video has demonstrated its critical subversion of the mass medium of television. Digital art has demonstrated its powers of imagination in virtual worlds. (꽤나 간략하고 좋으네)

media specificity and media criticality have prevailed absolutely and completely. The equivalence of the media, meaning its artistic equivalence and equal validity, has prevailed after successful attempt to chart the media-specific idiosyncratic worlds of the respective medium ranging from painting to video. (6)

두번째 단계는 이제 디지털 미디어의 덕으로 모든 매체들이 mixing되는 단계. 디지털 매체는 기본적으로 binary code로서 서로 transcording이 된다. 이제 모든 언어는 다른 언어로 바뀔 수 있고, 영향 줄 수 있다. 진정한 모든 아트 장르의 동등화가 일어난다. 

everyone to create their own textual, aural and visual installations using a choice of media such as photography, video or computer. The results can in turn be output as films, pieces of music or as architecture.

This mixing of the media has led to extraordinarily major innovations in each of the media and in art.

They all live from digital, technical innovations. The secret code behind all these forms of art is the binary code of the computer and the secret aesthetics consist of algorithmic rules and programs.

Consequently, this state of current art practice is best referred to as the post-media condition, because no single medium is dominant any longer; instead, all of the different media influence and determine each other. The set of all media forms a universal self-contained medium. This is the post-media condition of the world of the media in the practice of the arts today.

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