Round Table: The Projected Image in Contemporary Art : October, Vol. 104 (Spring, 2003), pp. 71-96Published by: The MIT Press
여기에서 중요한 것은 최근의 비디오 설치 작업이 감상하는 방식이 마치 조각과 다를바 없다고 이야기하는 것이다. 현상학에서 말하던 movevment나 embodiment가 좀 약해지는 게 아닐까. phenomenological한 방식으로 비디오를 다루는 것과 virtual한 방식으로 비디오를 다루는 것으로 분류하고 있다. 후자는 enter into a new dynamic이다.
결국 기존의 현재의 projected image installation들은 회화를 공간에 확장시켰을 뿐, 공간에 두었을 뿐, 여전히 stand-still한 감상방식을 유지시키고 있다. 회화적인 감상법을 유지하고 있다. 물론 예외도 있지만 전반적으로 그러하다.
Panels : Malcolm Turvey / Rosalind Krauss / Hal Foster / Chrissie Iles / Anthony McCall / George Baker / atthew Buckingham
Turvey: 그들은 최근의 projected image installation이라고 부르기로 함. (71)
Iles : 아주 간략하게 정리 잘 했다. 이 여자 맘에 들어 ㅋ abstract painting and abstract film emerge at the same moment, both in reaction to pictorialist conventions. … In the 1960s, Andy Warhol is the key figure in the reconnection between film and painting. … Mimimalism was introducing a phenomenological, syncretic viewing experience into sculpture. … It was at this porint, in the mid-1960s, that artists, mainly sculptors, began to use film. … In the late 1970s and 1980s, narrative began to reassert itself in the work of both experimental filmmakers and artist. In both experimental film and vidoe, and among artists working with film, a shift occerred toward increasingly complex narrativs and away from structural ideas. (72)
McCall : I thik we tend to talk interchangeably, and not very usefully, about film and cinema, as if they were the same thin. Cinema is a social institution, while film is a medium.
Iles : It is film as a physical medium, and it is also commercial movies. But I think the relationship between film and art is a one-way love affair. Artists love film, but the film workld is largely indifferent to the fact. … McCall you wrote in October 103 abut the art and film worlds as a ‘double-helix, spiraling closely around one another without ever quite meeting ‘ (74) 이게 중요한 포인트 인 것 같다. cinema와 artists flim/video는 만나지 않는다. 그리고 시네마는 실은 상대방에 신경도 쓰지 않는다.
McCall : Most of them had studied painting or sculpture. … and we approached it as material, much like one would approach the use of any sculptural material. We discovered it as we wnet along.결국 작가들은 기존의 방법대로 접근했다는 거다. 작가들 또한 시네마를 엄청나게 염두에 두면서 이 매체를 사용하기 시작한 것은 아니었다.
Iles : Another aspect to the split I was talking about is the fact that projected images are shown in galleries, which is comething the film world finds completely odd and irrelevant, but artists find very compelling. The physicla space of the gallery is critical to this discussion, because in the early 70, artists were focusing our attention on the sapce of the gallery, whereas in contemporaryinstallations, the sapce is not part of the conceptual structure of teh piece. … who bring our attention back to the space ,and the relationship of the moving image to it.
Foster : This speaks to a modernist formation: treating film reflexively, as a materiall thinking about process; working with the apparatus; being concerned with the embodiment of the viewer, the parameters of the space. That’s the differnce for me. When you say that film now is related to painting, I wouldn’t say painting so much as “pictorialsim.” There is a rampant pitorialism, which is also a rampant virtualism, that the sculptural and spatial interests of your generation…. The pictorialism of projected images today often doesn’t seem to care much about the actual space. This is beyond diembodiment: It’s habituatilng us to a kind of condition of post-subjectivity. (75)
McCall : I’m often stuck by how, in these installations with projected filmi and video, the gallery visitors are motionless. Of course, what is happening is that, in fact, they are not installation at all, in the original sense of being just about sculptural piece. 이 부분 중요하다. 최근의 비디오 설치 작업들은 움지김 없이 멈춰서서 바라보아야한 한다. 마치 조각처럼. The problem is that one does not look at video screens and sculpture in the same way. However places within a space, when you watch and listen to video or film, you enter the elsewhere of the moving iamge, and you leave your physical body behind, which remains rooted to the spot. To study sculpture-or to explore architectural space-you must walk, measuring what you see with your eyes and your physical body. There two experiences are diametrically opposed.
Baker : I think we should turn to more of these specific examples. . Fo in fact there is a split in contemporary uses of projection between the phenomenological and the virtual, a split that perhaps follows that between film and cinema moregenerally. As Chrissie will knows, some contemporary artists do attempt to continue the phenomenological interest in film. … But some artists engaging with virtualization make it so excessive that we in fact enter into a new dynamic. (76) 후자의 예로 Douglas Gordon을 들고 있다. This is opposed to the hyperconsciousness of the phenomenological typical of the tradtion of the 60s and 70s. .. But I think that this engagement with virtualization can also be a utopian condition for contemporary artists. Virtualization here is a potential source of utopian ambitions that one watns to reconnect to now in the wake of postmodernism, in a sense. (77) …
Baker : I consider the use of projected images in contempoaray art is how such work smuggles in authorial control over the final project in a way that is almost ironclad. … We are dealing with technologically reproducible media that are individualized in such a way that you can only see them in the mode of installation. They often cannot be reproduced for study purposes or print venues in any way. Ther are these unreproducible, singuliarized experiences. And that singularizes the experience of this otherwise tehcnological form. (80) 결국 설치를 통해서 이 기술적 재생산 매체가 singular해 진다 authorial control을 갖게 된다.
이 사람들의 공통적인 의견은- 최근의 projected image installation이 anthrography, ethnography, psychoanalysis등의 복잡한 주제의식들을 담고 있기 때문에 단순하게 Minimalism 계승한다고 해석할 수는 없다는 것.
Turvey : P. Adams Sitney always made the argument that you can understand the tradition of avant-garde film in the US in terms of the use of film as a metaphor for the mind. … that film is the artistic medium that is best at representing psychological processes, especially extreme psychological processe. … I agree with you Ha, wen you say hat a lot of contemporary work is aimed at conveying ,or attempting to make the spectator reexperience, certain tyoes of psychological states, especially traumatic ones. (85)
Iles : I think one of the reasone for the nostalgia for the architecture of cinema of the past is that cinema godya has become an exaggeratedly immersive space. … The immersive space of contemporary commercial cinema is like the immersiveness of the proejcted iamge in mch installation art that Anthony was talking about realier, where yo have passive and motionless, and you are transfixed by the image. (88)
Buckingham : 시네마와 아트 설치와의 차이는 결국,시작부터 끝까지 관객에게 다 보게 강제할 것인가 아닌가. I think that distinction is realy key. Giving up control over the duration of the audience’s experience can create the opportunity to work totally different with cause and effect.
McCall : What surprises me is how little this is taken into account with a lot of the new work, especially given that it is made to be shown in gallery spaces, where the inderteminate spectator is a given.
Turvey : … I would argue thath the possibiltiy of seeing something again, severa times, really opens up film spectatorship in a way that is not oissible in a theatrical venue, and that this is a really good thing about the current use of the proejcted image in contemporary art. 극장과는 이렇기 때문에 다르다고 파악. (90)
Baker : what is being pointed to here is the way in which bringing film into the formerly sculptural space of the art gallery opned up new possibilities, like repeated viewing, that are unavailable in a theater. Perhaps we are confronting a new form born of the amalgamation of the two traditions? (91)
Baker : I have never seen a public projection in a public space of exhibition where people were notlyingi on the ground, or makig automatically a cinematic arrangement for themselves before the image, which then becomes just another kind of cinematic theatrical product. Yet the critical reception of much projection work, including my own, clings to and insists upon the work’s opening onto a phenomenological or sculptural space of transition and movement. This perhaps connects to Hal’s ealier worreis over art’s virtualization uder the hegemony of projection.
Iles : The very precise nature of the installation of all of Coleman’s pieces inhibits the viewer from walking around. (92) … The moment people see a moving image, as Anthony pointed out, their immediate reactionis to stand sitll and watch it. ..
Foster : Film or filmic effects are so pervasivein theart world they have begun to reformat all kindsof other practices. (93)
Baker : flm and projection are dominant aesthetic modes for contemporary art institutions and mega exhibitions, and that we are now witnessing an intense relativization of the field of art insitution, the art critic, and the art historian by film history, cinema history, film theory. and media history.
Iles : the split bewteen avant-garde film and film in the art world that you mention is that filmmakers in an avant-garde situation insist that you come, quite rightly, and sit in the space and watch their films from beginning to end. And that is actually, antithetical to the art world. … they wnat someone to come in and watch the entire thin, and leave at the tned, which, in an art-gallery situation, is extremely difficult to do