Nicolas Bourriaud

Nicolas Bourriaud <Postproudction>

Notions of originality (being at the origin of) and even of creation (making something from nothing) are slowly blurred in this new cultural landscape marked by the twin figures of the DJ and the programmer, both of whom have the task of selecting cultural objects and inserting them into new contexts. -(13)

Artists today program forms more than they compose them: rather than transfigure a raw element (blank canvas, clay, etc.), they remix available forms and make use of data. (17)

The activities of DJs, Web surfers, and postproduction artists imply a similar configuration of knowledge, which is characterized by the invention of paths through culture…. The DJ activates the history of music by copying and pasting together loops of sound, placing recorded products in relation with each other. Artists actively inhabit cultural and social forms. (18) A sampler, a machine that reprocesses musical products, also implies constant activity; to listen to records becomes work in itself, which diminishes the dividing line between reception and practice, roducing new cartographies of knowledge. This recycling of sounds, images, and forms implies incessant navigation within the meanderings of cultural history, navigation which itself becomes the subject of artistic practice.

They consider it normal that the sonorous treatment applied to the borrowed loop could in turn generate other interpretations, and so on and so forth.  Likewise, the contemporary work of art does not position itself as the
termination point of the “creative process” (a “finished product” to be contemplated) but as a site of navigation, a portal, a generator of activities. In this new form of culture, which one might call a culture of use or a culture of activity, the artwork functions as the temporary terminal of a network of interconnected elements, like a narrative that extends and reinterprets preceding narratives.   (19)

The artwork is no longer an end point but a simple moment in an infinite chain of contributions. .. art challenges passive culture, (20)


Contemporary art tends to abolish the ownership of forms, or in any case to shake up the old jurisprudence.  (35)

DJ today bases his or her work on principles inherited from the history of the artistic avant-garde: detournement, reciprocal or assisted readymades,the dematerialization of activities, and so on. (37)

The DJ’s work consists both of proposing a personal orbit through the musical universe (a playlist) and of connecting these elements in a certain order, paying attention to their sequence as well as to the construction of an
atmosphere (working directly on the crowd of dancers or reacting to their movements) .(38)

즉 postproduction art에서는 production과 comsumption 경계가 흐려진다.

DJ culture denies the binary opposition between the proposal of the transmitter and the participation of the receiver at the heart of many debates on modern art. The work of the DJ consists in conceiving linkages through which the works flow into each other, representing at once a product, a tool, and a medium. … The quality of a work depends on the trajectory it describes in the cultural landscape. It constructs a linkage between forms, signs, and images.(40)

Postproduction artists use these forms to decode and produce different story lines and alternative narratives. (46)

postproduction artists do not make a distinction between their work and that of others, or between their own
gestures and those of viewers. (47)


The materials used in Minimalist sculpture (anodized aluminum, steel, galvanized iron, Plexiglas, neon, and so
on) reference industrial technology and particularly the architecture of giant factories and warehouses. The iconography of Pop art, meanwhile, refers to the era of consumption and particularly the appearance of the supermarket and the new forms of marketing linked to it: visual frontality, seriality, abundance.   The contractual and administrative aesthetic of Conceptual art marked the beginning of the service economy. It is important to note that
Conceptual art was contemporary to the decisive  advance of computer research in the early seventies:… These works introduced data storage – the aridity of index card classification and the notion of the filing cabinet itself – into artistic practice: (85)

All that matters is the formula, not the place in which it is made or the identity of the person who makes it. (86)


Shareware does not have an author but a proper name. The musical practice of sampling has also contributed to destroying the figure of the Author, in a practical way that goes beyond theoretical deconstruction. (86)

In the sixties, the notion of the “open work” (Umberto Eco) opposed the classic schema of communication that supposed a transmitter and a passive receiver. Nevertheless, while the open work (such as an interactive or participatory Happening by Allan Kaprow) offers the receiver a certain latitude, it only allows him or her to react to the initial impulse provided by the transmitter: to participate is to complete the proposed schema. In other words, “the participation of the spectator” consists of initialing the aesthetic contract which the artist reserves the right to sign. That is why the open work, for Pierre Levy, “still remains caught in the hermeneutic paradigm,” since the receiver is only invited “to fill in the blanks, to choose between possible meanings.” (88)

Levy contrasts this “soft” conception of interactivity with the enormous possibilities that cyberspace now offers: “the emerging technocultural environment encourages the development of new types of art that ignore the separation between transmission and reception, composition and interpretation.”04 (89)

당시의 담론에서 receiver는 제한적이다. still in hermeneutic frame에 갖혀있다. 


Global culture today is a giant anamnesis, an enormous mixture whose principles of selection are
very difficult to identify.

How can we prevent this telescoping of cultures and styles from ending
up in kitsch eclecticism, a cool Hellenism excluding all critical



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