Dieter Daniels «Strategies of Interactivity»
나는 기본적으로 interactivity보다는 immersion에 관계. 이 글이 not quite relevant. 그래도 참고할 부분은 있음.
This digression to the history of Modernism elucidates the fact that the issue of viewer participation arises even before technical media are used in art. However, technology lends it a new dimension.
존 케이지, 플럭서스, 퍼포먼스, 등으로부터 interactive의 근원을 찾는다. 그 다음은 백남준, 브루스 나우만 등의 폐쇄회로 비디오 작업들. 그리 새로운 접근들은 아님.
Ideology or Technology—Brecht or Turing
Brecht’s approach goes all out and maps out an active role by the listeners as a political utopia that also includes the transmitter side of the medium.
Brecht transferred his theory of the theatre to media and acknowledges the social and political effects of human-human communication characterized by evermore perfect media machines.
Open or Closed Systems—John Cage or Bill Gates
Most of Cage’s compositions do not define a precise musical human-instrument interaction, but open up a field of possibilities to be interpreted by the performer of his composition, each time producing differing results through elements of chance and variation.
›bottom-up‹ structure by which opensource software such as Linux is constantly enhanced by its users. In either case, it is possible to vary and reinterpret a specified code with the result that the boundary between author and user becomes fluid. The opposite model would be a ›top-down‹ structure as represented by the precise notation of a classical composition as well as the proprietary software developed by Bill Gates’ Microsoft Corporation, for which the secrecy of the source code is the basis of a capitalist monopoly.
By contrast, the software of Bill Gates and other proprietary systems keeps users in the dark about the structures ›inscribed‹ by its writers.
Cage’s concept of interactivity stems from an aesthetic and ideology leading to the dissolution of the boundary between author, performance, and audience.
Forms of popular culture such as vaudeville, circus or, more recently, the techno DJ, on the other hand, enter into an intense exchange with the audience. The attempts to make interaction a means of avant-garde art in the 1960s show the desire to depart from the confines of a bourgeois culture felt to be elitist and instead influence mass culture. Further ideals can be circumscribed with Umberto Eco’s notion of the ›open work of art‹ mentioned above as well as the ›domination-free discourse‹ first expounded by Jürgen Habermas.