Beyond New Media Art
이 책에서 저자는 Medium이 무엇인가. terminology problem이 무엇인지 이야기하면서 시작한다. 이것을 art movement로 봐야할지, art genre로 보아야 할지 question 한다.
medium을 바라보는 두 가지 시각
1. Art Medium : Clement Greenburg
2. Communicative Medium : Marshall McLuhan
New medium을 바라보는 시각
1. Duchamp Land : in the art world
2. Turing Lang : outside of the art world.
한 매체가 등장하고 그에 따라 movement 혹은 genre가 형성되는데 이것이 전체적인 context안에서 자리를 잡는데에는 시간이 걸린다. 왜냐하면 그것을 systematically support 해 줄 수 있는 relevant art world가 함께 형성되어야 하기 떄문이다. 그 과정에서 사라지기도 하고 끝내자리를 잡는 것들도 생긴다. 예를 들어 60-70년대의 avant-garde아트가 처음에는 outside of the mainstream art world, 에서 형성되어서 niche였으나, 현재는 주류로 자리잡은 것이 그 일례이다. 이 아트월드는 해당 작업을 서포트 해주는 education, distribution, theoretical..등 다양한 부분으로 구성되어 있다.
초기의 뉴미디어 아트는. 기존의 existing art world와 분리되는 지들만의 고유한 New Media Art World안에서 생성되고, 발전되었다. 그러나 그것이 급속도로 발전하고 성장하면서 contemporary art world에 거의 진입하고 있다. 즉 contemporary art world의 sysem을 뉴미디어 아트가 합류하게 되면서 확장, 변화 시키고 있다고 볼 수 있을 것 같다. 궁극적으로 그들은 media artist라는 label보다는 그냥 artist가 되는 것을 목표로 하고 있다. 현재 이와 같은 transitiona상태이다. 지금 art world와 new media art world는 공존하고 있다. 아마도 계속 공존하면서 교집합이 커져 갈 거 같기는 하다. 둘이 서로 부족한 부분 결핍 부분을 보완하면서.?
Contemporary Art : the idea of art
If a work of art is defined by its aura, and of in the age of its technical reproducibility that aura is no longer an integral part of its technical proces of conferring that aura-namely the work of critics, museums, gallerists, and dealers. .. The aura is the consequence of this intellectual attention, the interest of the museums, the investments made by collectors, and so on, rather than the cause. (86).. The art world lent them an aura (87)
Krauss writes-we inhabit a post-medium condition. Which does not eman that staying with one medium is inappropriate, or that exploring the specific characteristics of that medium is a cardinal sin. Krauss tries to explain this in another essay, significantly entitled “reinventing the medium”. According to her, A medium can be rediscovered and reinvented by artists in the post-medium phase when it has fallen into obsolescence: not to explore its creative and aesthetic potential, but to examine its as a theoretical of art. (88)
Edward Shanken. Gerfried Stocker.
This portrait of the new media artsits, albeit an abstrat one, appears so far removed from the type of artist cultivated by the contemporary art world that we might be tempted to think that the difference between the two worlds is a question of anthropology rather than history (101)
The typical work required by the new media art world is by nature a hybrid one, and that the confines of this world are anything but fixed. .. While the contemporary art world has recently opened up a different disciplines, the new media art world is multidisciplinary by nature. Yet this openness takes two entirely different forms: while the contemporary art world, in a small number of cases and with precise conditions, taken upon itself to welcome works from different disciplines and betow the status of art upon them, the new media art world is a temporary holding center for worlds that are so radical or marginal that no-one else will take them. (103)
The new media art world often remains the only real binding agent between practices so diversely inspired and intentioned. In any case, the confines of this world, if they actually exist, are open, fluid borders that are constantly crossed, most of the times without a passport. (103)
The Boho Dace. New Media Art and Contemporary Art
New media art world has proved inadequate to the task of representing the complexity of the art that engages with the new technologies, and that has repeatedly attempted to make inroads into the world of contemporary art. (123)
[…]over the last twenty years, new media art has approached the platform of contemporary art. (124)
작가는 1996-1998 / 1999-2001 / 2002-2010 으로 분류한다.
여러가지 사건을 든다. ZKM설립, mediascape 전시/ afterimage 전시 / documenta X 등등. 변화상 추적한다.
1998. London ICA, new media curator, Benjamin Wil / SFMOMA ‘010101: art ni technological times’전시 (2001) / Tokyo NTT ICC (1997) / MECAD (1999, spain) /
The year 2000 saw a sigificant increase in the number and quality of events, with new players joining the field. (139)
전시목록 : 010101, SFMOMA (2001) / BitStreams (Witney Museum, 2001) / Data dynamics (Witney Museum, 2001) /
Barbara Pollack ‘digital art is a messy category that tuenr formalism on its ear by simulating art forms such as painting, sculpture, photography, film and installation, and by subverting the cone sacred distinctions between these categories.’ (barbara pollack Back to the Future with ‘BitStreams’)
The doubts over the contextualization of digital art did not go away, but were small fry respect to this aggressive, alpha campaign, in terms of both musuems and the market. […] Digital art is gaining prominence among artists, curators, and audiences. We could continue in this vein, but the situation appeared clear-cut: skeptics and converts alike appeared to think that the boho dance was over and it was finally time to consummate the relationship. Yet none of the ib museums ever returned to the enthusiasm demonstrated in 2001. In subsequent years some of them quitely disposed of their new media curators (The Walker Art center, SFMoMA and the Guggenheim), while others, like the Witney Museum and the Tate Gallery, effectively sidelined them, continuting to work on this arena but with a much more catious approach. (147-148)
여러가지 다양한 접근방식들이 생겼는데 이 중에 한 가지기ㅏ 주목할 만하다.
discreet guest라고 이를 부른다. is the one adopted by most of the shows staged between 2002 and 2010. In this case New media art makes its entrance on the contemporary art stage by means of well curated, conceptually solid, medium-sized evetens, often held in small institutions or private galleries. The thems are normally borrowed from the arena of digital culture, and the worlds belongs to New media art. .. The aim, obviously, is to show that this arena is capable of producing interesting works that perfectly capture a particular aspect of the zeitgeist: contemporay art at its best. (149)
Inke Arns, “Media art is no longer the formal category or formal genre it was considered to be, above all in the 1990s […] Rather it defines itself through an intensive content-related examination of the world surrounding us, one increasingly medialised and based upon new technologies… IT is finally growing up.“(151)
The postmedia perspective
misconception: New media art raises specific issues that can only be tackled by a specific media art curator. .. NEw media art is reduced to being the art that uses digital technologies as a medium. (181)
The uniqueness of new media art in the cultural arena doesnot lie in the media it uses, but in its familiarity with the cultural consequences of the advent of these media. (183)
What future of the new media art world?
As we have seen, the new media art world came about as a multidisciplinary arena of reserach, a reaction to the rigid conventions of a whole series of other worlds; that of contemporary art, but also the performing arts, music, design and industrial research. Its borderline status and dynamism should not only be acknowledged but also cultivated, and if possible, reinforced. (196)
The new media art world can potentially generate the energy that powers the other art worlds, giving their respective ideas of art a radical evolution. Obviously, for this to happen the new media art world must stop considering otself in competition with the other worlds, and casat off its own ineradicable inferiority complex. (196)
It needs to cultivate hybridization between different arenas and figures. It needs to recognize and proudly accpet the entrance of some of the fruits of its labours into the contemporary art world. All of this not only possible, but already taking place. (197)
The postmedia condition
In the contemporary art arena new media art is only allowed to exist if it abandons its technocentric outlook and the very term that identifies it. Or, to sum up the issue with the help of an early statement by Catherine David. .. (199)
Obviously, I am not suggesting we use the term postmedia to describe theart of the present. This term ha its own flaws, firstly becasue the prefix post has been abused in art criticism, and secondly because, as used by Krauss, it is predominantly associated with the art of the twentieth century, and not up to the challenge of describing the art of the information age. (202)
Recognizing that we are living in a postmedia age is not a point of arrival, but a point of departure. It means recognizing that the digital revolution completely changed the conditions for the production and circulation of art, and that it is slowly but ineveitably changing the ways in which artis experienced, discussed and owned. In these circumstances, art is becoming something completely different from what we were used to-and art worlds have to change accordingly, developing new values, new ecomonies, new structure. This is already happening. (202)
Nicolas Bourriaud identifies the socio-cultural impact of the new technologies as one of the points of departure for analysing contemporary art. In relational Aesthetics he noted how the main effects of the computer revolution are visible today among artists who do not use computers. … He further develops this reflection on the impact of digital media on artistic means of production. (203)
The radicant : radicant art implies the end of the medium-specific, the abandonment of any tendency to exclude certain fields from the realm of art […] Nothing could be more alien to it than a mode of thought based on disciplines, on th specificity of the medium-a sedentary notion if ever there was one, and one that amounts to cultivating one’s field. (p,53-54)
The idea of radicant, if interpreted correctly, not only enables us to rescue new media art from its position on the margins, but also even translate the postmedia perspective, still bound to a century of post phenomena, into a valuable indication for 21st century art. (204)
In othe words, a set of vertical barriers is replaced by a horizontal divider. Art and media can use the same means, be identical in formal terms and travel on the same distribution circuits, because it is their deep-seated nature that distinguishes them, not incidental elements. (205)
After Art, David Joselit p 12. “one of the goals of after rt is to expand the definition of art of embrace heterogeneous configurations of relationship of links(2)” 12페이지도 참조해라.
To conclude, if recognizing that we are living in a postmedia era is just a starting point, the integration of the art formerly known as new media art into the contemporary art world is, again, only the preliminary phase of a broader reconfiguration of art worlds. The continental drift has begun. (212)