AFTER ART by David Joselit
The documented / The distributed and emergent images의 예를 찾아라.
내 작업과 연결지어 보자.
relocation / remediation / restitution
image는 usucally Derivative / Dumb / Deceptive하다고 여겨져 왔다.
Images are thought to derive significance from external sources.
Images are disnissed as merely intuitive.
As sources of pleasure, images deceive. As spectacle, images are the opposite of knowledge-they are the epitome of ignorance.
그러나 저자가 이 책에서 이야기하고자 하는 것은, 현재의 digital age에서 이미지가 어떻게 reshape되는가에 대한 부분이다. After Art will shift critical emphasis from art’s production to what images do once they enter circulation in heterogenous networks. He negate the meaning of Post, such as post modern, post medium. 이제 더는 유효하지 않다고 본다. AFTER shifts emphasis to its effects- its power- under the conditions of circulation.
People are now realizing that art is an international currency. – Donald Rubell.
이 단락에서 저자는 예술이 더 이상 object-based가 아닌 것이 되었다고 주장한다. 디지털 시대가 이를 더 가속화 한다.
여기에 맞추어서 우리는 우리의 기존의 사고 개념들을 바꿀 필요가 있다.
1. MEDIUM개념을 버려야 한다.
We must discard the concept of medium.(along with its mirror image, the postmedium),which has been fundamental to art history and criticism for generations. 과격한 발언이기는 하다.
Our goals of AFTER ART is to expand the definition of relationships or links.
Medium and postmedium are not good analytic tools for describe the hybridity of such chains or currencies of different state of forms.(2)
이 부분에 접근하는 방식이 크게 두 개 있다 Neo liberalism / Fundamentalism.
image fundamentalism asserts that a visual artifact belongs exclusively to a specific site: 예를 들으 예술품 반환 운동 등이 다 여기에 속한다. Repatriation movement.
The thorough documentation of an object’s history- a continuous chain of custody, its provenance. p.8. its true value can be appreciated only in relation to the fullest possible information regarding its origin.
이 둘은 늘 political conflict를 일으킨다. If art has political efficacy in the 21 century, it mnay lie in cultural diplomacy as opposed dto the invention of avant-garde forms as new content. p.6.(6)
These controversies nonetheless offer a thoroughly contemporary conflict between a neolibeeral model of free circulation and a fundamentalist belief in art’s belonging to a unique place.
저자가 생각하기게 현대예술은 정보에 달려있다.
The Contemporary ethics of cultural property hinges on information.(7)
따라서 이러하 지금까지의 Art object를 나누는 세가지의 기준을 제시하는데
1) The migrant
2) the native
3) the documented pp.9-10.
The migrant의 경우는 작업 자체에 의미가 있다고 본다. origin보다. The information carried by migrant object is believed to be inherent in their form rather than dependent upon their site of origin. The native object belongs organically to a specific place. origin에 의미를 부여한다. Its highest aesthetic quality, its primary value is tied to a specific cultural identity, and typically it belongs to the state. Native objects are absolutely site specific:if displaced they are said to be maimed, rendered meaningless.
The documented object, whose relationship to its original site or find spot has been properly studied to produce an informational or documentary value. If fully researched, it could be a collective form of community manegement of cultural heritage. p.12.
information age에는 필수적으로 이 documented object 성격이 내재한다고 본다. Informtaion era, where documentation is virtually inherent in the production of art, contemporary artworks typically belin to the category of documented objects.
결론적으로, The question of art’s circulation, or its currency-whether migrant, native or documented – is thus intricately tied to different understanding of its site-specificity.(12)
Site-specificity에 대한 재해석이 필요하다.
또한 Walter Benjamin의 AURA 개념이 현재에 적용 불가한다고 본다.(이 부분 new aura에 추가 가능 – 반대하는 것으로)
저자는 현재는 기본적으로from individual works to virtually unlimited populations of images.라고 본다. p.14.
According to Benjamin, aura results from site specificity. It is because the work of a rt belongs to a tim and space that it can possess the authority of a witness. Aura is closely associated with image fundamentalism. 그러나 현재시대의 이미지는 끊임없이 relocation, remediation, restitution된다. Images are no longer and probably can never again be site specific, as Benjamin diagnosed, which means that instead of witnessing history, they constitute its very currency. p.15.
Benjamin에게 있어서 mechanical reproduction은 he asserts, the loss of authority, hostiry ,and authenticity.
Walter Benjamin Comaroff
그는 Saturation / population을 강조한다. 지금 internet / digital age에서. –> 이로부터 저자는 BUZZ이론을 이끌어낸다.
Instead of radiating nimbus of authenticity and authority underwritten by site specificity, we have the value of saturation, of being everywhere at once. In place of aura, there is BUZZ. A Buzz arises not from the agency of a single object or event but from the emergent behavior of populations of actors when their discrete movements are sufficiently in phase to produce coordinated action. p.16.
They are distributed over seneral small acts that, taken individually, may have no intention, or consciousness of a bigger picture. Buzz indicates a momnet of becoming- a threshold at whih coherence emerges.
즉 BUZZ, population, saturation은 일종의 distributed, and emergent form 이다. 이 부분은 image circulation에 대한 부분이다. 이미지의 순환이 디지털 시대에 와서 어떻게 달라지는지.- not exactly relevant to my research.
이것은 science, political theory, computing and information science, pop culture, art에 모두 적용되고 있다.
The emergent image is a dynamic form that arises out of circulation. It is located between the neoliberarlism and fundamentalism. It is located on a spectrum between the absolute stasis of native site specificity on the one hand, and the absolute freedom of neoliberal markets on the other.
중국 작가들을 예로 들고 있다. Wang Guangyi 작업의 경우, 아주 local한 중국의 issue를 다루고 있지만, 동시에 western painting의 form을 차용함으로써 international한 감각을 획득한다. This is what the contemporary global artwork must be: an emissary, whose power arises out of cultural translation rather than avant-garde ionnovation, a form of international currency that can cross borders effortlessly. p.21.
We could take image diplomacy seriously and attempt to imagine how art can function as a currency without falling into monetization.
I am advocating that we think more democratically about image circulation. p.23.
건축에 있어서 이런 군집의 distributed, emergent 미학이 어떻게 반영되는지 살펴본다 –> parametricism.
2008년 AA london에서 parametricism 선언이 있었다. 이것은 this is about continuous differentiation, versioning, iteration, and mass customization, etc. The shared concepts, computational techniques, formal repertories, and tectonic logics that characterize this work are cystallizing into a solid new hegemonic paradigm for architecture. p.24.
What is important for our purposes is that architectural theory and practice of the past two decades has attempted to hone methods for generating objects from fields.
The becoming of form through variable intensifications and manipulations in a continuous structure. p.24.
Reiser + Umemoto 등 현대 건축에서 드러나는 특징은 densification within a continous field이다. a network or varying intensities. subsuming both figure and ground within a unified field of variable intensity where function inheres not in any single element but in systematic concentrations of elements. p.32.
The crux of this efforts is to shift the figure/ ground dynamic from the internal composition of an artwork, to a broader oscillation between the work and its aesthetic environment.- 인용 가능 (32)
이것은 fine arts에도 적용된다. reproduction/ reiteration /
manipulating the situational or performative nature of content rather than inventing new content.
어떤 상황속, 행위적 요소들이 중요해지기 시작한다. 이러한 형태의 작업들은 narration을 요구한다. more than ostensible meanings.
Matthew Barney의 작업에서 그 예를 찾는다. 그의 cremaster series, and the field emblem 이 situation/ condition / proudction / 의 요소를 다 담고 있다. His works is rather a network or a system. The field emblem is not the meaning of this work, but its format. 여기에서 작가는 기존의 medium , 매체 개념을 부정하기 시작. 이제는 medium 개념에서 format 개념으로 넘어가야 한다고 보고 있다.(42)
The shift I’ve indicated from an object-based aesthetic in both architecture and art to a network aesthetics premised on the emergence of form from populations of images, calls for a corresponding revision of critical methodology. 이제 더 이상 object based art의 시대는 갔다. p.43.
Objects characterized by discernible limits and relative stability lend themselves to singular meaning-almost as though well-defiend forms are destined to contain a significance live vessels.
Emergence , however, unfolds in time : it must be narrated.
여기에서 구심력과 원심력 이론이 나온다. 아주 흥미롭다고 본다.
Centripetal / Centrifugal theory
1) Centripetal : 구심력 이론. — 안으로 수렴한다. 즉 object-based 이론이다. inward object.
they establish meaning by moving inward toward a thing-the work-bolstering its primacy and stability.- behind, beside, inside, and before the object.p.44. 현재까지의 친숙한 critical thoughts 방식으로는 meaning lies within the object가 있을 것 같다. semiotics, Yve Alain Bois, Rosalind Krauss 등.
These methods are centripetal because they are directed inward to the objects as their organizing principle, even when ostensibly concerned with external phenomena like context or future effects. such analysis participates in the very processes of reification that the progressive wing of art history has devoted itself to critiquing. Assigning a meaning is merely another way of setting an artwork’s price in the currency of knowledge, transforming it into a certain kind of commodity for collectors to by and for museums to seel to their audiences. p.46.
2) Centrifugal : 원심력 이론 — 밖으로 확장. 팽창한다. 탈 object / post-object. 이제는 오브젝트 그 자체 보다는, 경험이 중요해진다.–> media art와 연결될 것 같다.
This centrifugal unfoldings of architectural surface as a platform for art is very different from the centripetal dynamic I have discussed in which meanings from a behind-beside-within-before are directed inward to bolster an object. Le Corbusier’s topography incorporates a concept – and a physical experience- of centrifugal vision, of what Gilles Deleuze and FElix Guattari might call “lines of light”. p.49.
One way of givin form to spatial, centrifugal narratives-of producing a kind of image promenade is thus to show how images nay change their valence on account of their changes in position or that of their spectators. Another recent tactic for giving form to events within a filed of images is itself quasi-architectural-it consists of establishing actual open platforms, often with explicit reference to architectural structures, dedicated to hosting an array of activities ranging from actual events(involving human participation) to virtual events(implying the dislocation and relocation of objects). pp.51-51.
동일하 ㄴ이미지가 다른 상황, 맥락에서 다른 의미를 획득하게 되기도 한다. 건축에서도 이제는 실제적인 이벤트와 가상적 이벤트를 모두 담아내려는 시도들이 이루어진다.
towards its users as shareholders not a merely spectators.
Contemporary artists seeks to format a set of links or connections between people, images, spaces, events, and so on. These works do not proffer blank, undifferentiated spaces, but, like the historical commons, they establish a rich texture of connection such rights configure-their constellation of links-are what I call formats.
여기에서 기존의 매체 개념을 없애고 이제는 포맷 개념을 적용해야 한다고 주장.
Simply put, a format is a heterogeneous and often provisional structure that channels content. Mediums are subsets of formats. (매체는 포멧의 부분집합이다.) the difference lies solely in scale and flexibility. Mediums are limited and limiting because they call forth singular objects and limited visual practices, such as painting or video. Mediums are analogue in a digital world. Formats regulates image currencies(image power) by modulating their force, speed and clarity.
Formats can offer an empty platform for actions to emerge. to develop new behaviors-new social lives. Formats like Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade configure relationship spatially within a population of images. p.55.
현재 internet / digital / www 시대에는 이제 format 개념을 적용해야 한다.
Formats are dynamic mechanisms for aggregating content. Ultimately, mediums lead to objects, and thus reification, but formats are nodal connections and differential fields; they channel an unpredictable array of ephemeral currents and charges. p.55.
Now matters most is not the production of new content but its retrieval in intelligible patterns through acts of reframing, capturing, reiterating, and documenting. In economies of image overproduction connectivity is key. This is the Epistemology of Search.(56)
저자는 이 epistemology of search를 새로운 개념으로 내세운다. 검색의 인식론.
Google has become one of the most financially successful corporations of the 21 century. In informational economies of overproduction, value is derived not merely from the intrinsic qualities of a commodity, but from its searchability-its susceptiblity to being found, or recognized, or profiled. p.58.
현시대에서 검색은 매우 중요하다. 예술과 건축에도 동일한 검색의 알고리즘이 적용된다.
Like Google’s search algorithms, art and architecture reformat existing streams of images and information. They practice both an epistemology and an aesthetics of the search engine.
Electricity is often colloquially called power. All kinds of power share a structure with electric current. 전기처럼 모든 connection들은 두 개의 순간으로 구성된다. Any connection comprises two moments: a point of contact and a current that is thereby established.
The structure of connection : contact + current = currency. (=power)
Any connection is scalable, from intimate perception of a work of art by an individual to the global circulation of images.
이들은 다양한 connections / links들로 연결된다. 따라서 이제는 이러한 link들을 어떻게 분석하는지가 중요해 진다.
There may be links based on adjacency and dizzying hyperlinks that jump across vast spaces and cultural differences. The critic’s job is to demonstrate how patterns of links generate formats. This requires analyzing connection as a new critical object. p.59.
이 링크의 종류를 네개로 저자는 제시한다.
Those four types of links are the building blocks for currencies if image power. They create value through their magnitude and density of connections. None of these types of connection ever exists in isolation.
1) Works to Citizen
2) Community to Institution
3) Institution to State
4) State to Globe p.59.
1) Works to Citizen
work of art가 개개인의 감상자와 연결되는 방식은 두개가 있다. the perceptual / the psychological.
These approaches are typically based on the spectator’s self-possession of her experience as well as her subjectivity. 이것은 자연스럽게 possession 개념, property 개념으로 이어진다. Such a presumption of the self as property naturally corresponds to a type of artwork defined as property. p.60.
저자가 주목하고자 하는 것은, 교환가능한 물질로서의 art가 아니다. There can be a currency of exchange that is not cash, but rather a nonmonetized form of transaction: translations between different systems of value, or different cultures. I wish to acknowledge the significance of scalability. p.61.
이 예로서 작가는 Tania Bruguera의 Generic Capitalism을 든다.
In short, Bruguera’s behavior art is much more specific than a generalized participation or interactivity between the audience and a work of art. It delineates the ties that bind particular audience members together rather than their simultaneous, but nonetheless individual connections to an image, object, or event. Her work explores the nature of social ties or associations, the web of connections that constitutes her format. p.65.
Nicholas Bourriaud wsites, “Each particular artwork is a proposal to live in a shared world, and the work of every artist is a bundle of relations with the world, giving rise to other relations, and so so and so forth, ad infinitum.” p.66.
저자는 Bourriard의 이 bundle of relationships 개념을 더 확장해서 Format of connections 라고 부르기로 한다. 이 같은 예는 Yoko Ono, Marina Abramovic, Tino Sehgal 의 작업에서 찾을 수 있다. They stages interpersonal transactions premised on trust and aimed at producing value through collective knowledge.The currency of social interaction is indeed as generic as it gets. p.68.
2) Community to Institution
저자는 여기에서 museum을 대상으로 한다. 현재의 museum은 paradox를 내포하고 있다. museum과 collection을 보존, 유지하기 위해서는 wealth의 후원이 필요하고, 그를 위해서 그들만을 위한 독점적인 서비스도 있어야 한다. 그러나 동시에 미술관은 대중을 위한 봉사를 목적으로 역설한다. Here is the paradox: public service is elided withe the accumulation of wealth. This connection-between accumulation and democracy-is the format of american museums. The museum connects democratic participation through its public programs and its populist rhetoric, to a structure based on primitive accumulation. This accumulation proceeds on at least three registers: the stockpiling of artworks; the collection of hefty financial donations from wealthy patrons in order to construct both buildings and endowments; and finally the accumulation of cultural prestige for those who participate in the museum’s programs, but especially those at the top of the pyramid-the trustees-who accrue significant social advantages due to their philanthropic largesse. p.70-71.
In other words, the museum is engaged in a massive money-laundering operation: turning finanace capital into cultural capital and putting a democratic face on the accumulation of wealth.
It is no wonder that, in an era when the division between rich and poor has never been greater worldwide, museums are proliferating wildly. p.72.
3) Institution to State
이 부분에서 저자는 이제 현대의 미술관들이 어떻게 스스로를 branding하는지 살펴본다. 위에서 언급한 문제점들을 극복하기 위해서.
Artworks and brands are positioned on the same continuous spectrum of gradations between two ideal poles; the absolutely hermetic image, which has a connectivity quotient of o, and the absolutely accessible image, with an infinite capacity to reach audiences. Museum and image both may begin to function as a brand. Indeed, it is now impossible to build a truly global career as an artist without a high quotient of connectivity bordering on the status of a brand. It is a matter of degree, of the quantitative density of connections, that ultimately leads, as theories of emergence propose, to qualitative difference. p.73.
이 digital, networked society에서는 작가 작업 모두 연결성과 떨어질 수 없다. 밀폐된 하나의 오브제로서는 안되고, 연결되어 있는 브랜드가 되어야 한다. 이 예로 작가는 건축물을 든다. Buildings.
It is in building that the entire spectrum between hermetic object and brand is realized as a structure, like Guggenheim Bilbao. Knot Format architecture. 이것은 중앙으로 수렴되는 구조가 아니라 분산적인 건축물이다. in relation with the notions of democracy. The knot format conencts relatively hermetic images into the shape of a brand.
Richard Meier’ Getty in LA / Zaha Hadid MAXXI in Rome / Rem Koolhaas CCTV in Beijing/
In postindustrial “experience economies” whose growth is characterized by services ranging from tourism to finance, the branding of museums and other cultural facilities is a valuable-even essential asset for municipalities, regions, and nations. pp.76-77.
The Guggenheim effect . its revitalization, redevelopment. it assumes a format that leads from a diverse array of art objects to a sigular branded architectural image whose purpose is to attract capital. The arts have had a strong potential role in nation building throughout the period of decolonization. pp.78-79.
3) State to Globe
여기에서 저자는 scale의 중요성에 초점을 둔다.
In architectural design as in digital networks, scale matters. Scalability denotes a format’s capacity to persists across increasing orders of magnitude. In approaching the greatest scale of connection, between state and globe, the issue of scalability can no longer be ignored. p.79.
The greater the scale of a network, the harder it is to retrieve any particular unit of informtaion.
Hits and cookies are the keys. what matters is density of connection. The cultural profile of nation-states in a global economy also depends on this and cookies. Despite the commonsense assumption that globalization should lead to decentralization, world financial capitals such as NY, London have become ever more concentrated and dominant as the hubs or nodes within global networks. Such global capitals profit from densification. This is why art fairs and biennials have proliferated across the globe: they are gambits for cultural densification. They are the stock exchanges of art where the world comes to speculate on cultural currency. Art is an international currency. pp.80-81.
Globalization requires a division of labor that is distributed worldwide. We know that in the current global economy, development involves a progression from modes of production that have very low value added to very high value added. from production to service.
Economy offerings hierarchy
1) Commodities : extracted from the Earth
2) Goods : tangible things manufactured from commodities
3) Servies : intangible activities delivered on behalf of customers
4) Experiences : memorable events that engage individuals in an inherently personal way.
5) Transformations : effectual outcomes that guide customers to change some dimension of self.
Art and architecture are paradigmatic transformational experiences. 그렇기 때문에 2ㅔ 3세계에서 끊임없이 문화재 반환 운동을 벌이는 것이고, This is also why contemporary art has become a means of soft diplomacy, such as China. As both commodity and experience, art is the paradigmatic object of globalization. Art establishes a special kind of currency exchange where cultural difference is assessed and traded like yen, dollar.. But art is never fully moneetized. Images are not aimed at creating utopias; they have a diplomatic porfolio. In place of avnat-garde we have both monetized and nonmonetized forms of cultural currency exchange. This is the power of connectivity under the Epistemology of Search p.84.
여기에서 저자는 image가 갖는 power에 대해서 이야기한다. 이 힘은 비로소 networked society에 와서 실현가능해졌고, 아티스트들은 이를 추구해야 한다고 이야기한다. gradations of, populations of image는 기존의 이미지와는 다른 지위를 갖게 되었고, 다른 일들을 할 수 있게 되었다.
Life universities, the art world’s institutions produce a wide spectrum of knowledge ranging from pure research to commercial applications. The museum world, as a highly visiblel interface between broad audiences and art-historical research, can and does function as art’s university. p.85.
기존의 museum이 수행하던 역할은 modern에 어울린다. 저는 적합하지 않다. 기존의 특징으로는
1) Museums launder the assets of elites by transforming their private accumulation of art into public benefits for the people. Museums appear to democratize the uneven distribution of wealth that results from late capitalism’s high-risk finance industries. Art world’s institutions depend on art’s capacity to attract investment form wealthy individuals and corporations as well as government patronage. p.86.
2) Ideological project is aesthetic and philosophical. as an encyclopedia of art works, it serve to validate and explore the status of images as a secular form of knowledge. art began to be valuded for its capacity to carry secular content: to manifest knowledge as aesthetic form. (It is important to underline here that an association between images and such secular, self-conscious forms of knowledge need not be mimetic.)
–> 이것들은 모두 modern association of art with secular knowledge 이다.
modern art의 utopian capacity of art has been outflanked.
With After art I hope to link the vast image population explosion that occurred in the 20th century to the breakdown of the era of art. Modern art’s purpose as a vanguard for the promotion of and research into how images constitute secular knowledge, and particularly self-knowledge or the anthropological knowledge lost its urgency.
Who inhabits contemporary visual culture assumes the complex communicative capacity of images to be self-evident.
기존에 사적이고, 중요하고도 새로운 의미를 담아야 했던 예술은 이제 기존의 컨텐츠들을 reformatting하는 것으로 움직여야 한다. Art, defined as a private creative pursuit leading to significant and profitable discoveries of how images may carry new content, has given way to the formatting and reformatting of existing content- to an Epistemology of Search. The major consequence of this shift is that art now exists as a fold, or disruption, or event within a population of images, what I have defined as a Format.
Art can establish a wide variety of connections simultaneously: after art comes the logic of networks where links ca cross space, time, genre, and scale in surprising and multiple ways.
Like other entertainment industries, the art world is equipped with a sophisticated distribution network, and it exercises significnat economic clout. p.89.
현 시대에서는 art is just one of many producers of altenative realities. This is not to say that art is over. AFTER posits continuity and reverberation, rather than rupture. What results after the era of art is a new kind of power that art assembles through its heteroguous formats. This is to say that the specific format that art assumes lends it a unique form of power. This point is to use this power. p.91.
이러한 예술의 힘이 가상적이라고 보는 경향이 있는데, 이것은 오히려 자본과 결합되었을 때 더 힘이 강력해 진다. There is a lingering tendency to regard art’s power as virtual. The organization of the art world-its format- is as real as it gets when it comes to capital’s effects, and its power has probably never been greater. p.93.
Ai Weiwei를 그 예로 들고 있다. Ai’s political work did not result exclusively in objects, but in the exercise of power. Ai has given form to the concept of the population-of people and of things-in imgration. Ai did not critique the power of images, he exploited the power of art to transport people and things both spatially and imaginatively. This is our political horizon, after art.
I have streesed the importance of image populations because I believe image power- the capacity to format complex and multivalent links through visual means-is derived from networks rather than discrete objects. This means that works of art must develop ways to build networks into their form by, reframing, capturing, reiterating, and documenting existing content. p.94.
Connectivity creates power. Our real work begins after art, in the networks it formats.