The Interface Effect :
Alexander Galloway 2012
Interfaces are not simply objects or boundary points. They are autonomous zone of activity. Interfaces are not things, but rather processes that effect a result of whatever kind.
…Interfaces themselves are effects, in that they bring about transformations in material staets. But at the smae time interfaces are themselves the effects of other things, and thus tell the story of larger forces that engender them. (Preface 7)
이 부분에서 저자는 Lev Manovich의 2001년 The language of new media에 대해서 반론 제시한다. 기본적으로 Manovich가 medium을 낭만적으로 해석하는 입장에 반대한다. social / political 면을 간과한다. 그리고, 그의 cinema에 대한 view에 대해 반박한다.
Is Manovich’s view on the world a modernist one? I think so. This is a modernist lens in the sense that he returns again and again to the formal essence of the medium, the techniques and charateristics of the technoolgy, and then uses these qualities to talk about the new. (Introduction 3)
His five principles on New Media… are rather .. they describe some of the aesthetic properties of data, and the basic ways in which information is created, stored, and rendered intelligible. 이건 뉴미디어에 대한 성격이 아니라, digital data에 대한 성격들로 보는 것이 더 적절하다.
It is clear where Manovich puts his favor: new media are essentially sofrtware applications. But others have answered the same question in very different ways; (3)
Google and Facebook have already broached the question of the interface. The open-source culture of new media really means thing today, it means open interace. It means the freedom to connect to technical images. (9)