Installation and the moving image : Catherine Elwes
4페이지에서 다양한 크리틱들이 서로 다르게 이걸 칭하는 거 인용해라. 5페이지에서는 왜 저자가 moving-image라는 term을 사용하기로 했는지 설명한다. 활용 가능한 부분들이 있다.
The moving image has the capacity to both reiterate and dissolve the existing architectural boundaries of a gallery.(13)
Jennifer Steinkamp turns windows and doorways into frames for abstract, optical works reminiscent of the paintings of Bridget Riley and Agnes Martin. Her pulsating video imagery softens the rigid ‘masculine’ geometries of the space with roiling vortices of line and color, rumbling like some anarchic feminine unconscious threatening the pure classicism of the building. (13) 이 부분 인용해라. Simon Payne Vindwo piece (2012)도 활용 가능.
The work of Payne and Steinkamp depend for their effect on an ambulatory spectator coming upon these architectural transformations as they navigate the space of the gallery. (13)
WORRYING THE EDGES OF THE FRAME: THE RUPTURE
즉, PM은 painting frame과도, film frame 과도 다르다는게 내 입장.
Andre Bazin, writing in the 1950s, was concerned to draw attention of the spatial benefits of the moving image as well as the temporal when he made a distinction between the stasis of the self-contained space of the canvas and the dynamic, unfolding territories of film. He observed that the frame of a painting is what he termed ‘centripetal‘ and delimits the internal space of the image, whereas the frame of film is ‘centrifugal’, the edges showing only a portion of reality; space in film therefore seems to be part of something prolonged indefinitely into the universe, always moving out into a space beyond the frame. (32)
The film frame became the stage set for the interplay between the dramatis personae of line, form, texture, colour, rhythm and time rushing through the field of vision into the space of the imagination. (33) film 의 frame은 늘 연장선으로 간주되어 왔다. beyond the film 을 상상하게 만드는 틀.
Anthony McCall‘s conscious application of the dimensions of the body as the basic unit of measurement in his ‘solid light’ sculptures. 조각 이라고 부르네??
In an article in the journal October, McCall confirmed that the body is the important measure. Standing inside the cone near its base at the wall, where it is at its tallest dimension, the body should be completely subsumed within it. With outstretched arms it should not be quite possible to touch the upper surface. (45)
이런 것을 Phyllida Barlow는 a choreography for the viewer라고 했다. (45)
Film bequeaths to moving image installation the grammar of cinema, its structures of production and reception, its cultural history, as well as its material conditions. (98)
CHAPTER 6 : Film as film
STRUCTURAL / MATERIALISM
Peter Gidal first aired his radical doctrine of film in his 1975 essay … (113)
Malcom Le Grice, Nicky Hamlyn, … 기타 등등.
All the rules of cinematic grammar were broken: narrative logic imploded, continuity disrupted, and edits made visible by substituting smooth dissolves with disconnected jump cuts. … The conventional roles of the film set were overturned as the filmmaker regularly doubled as performer, camera operator, editor, projectionist and distributor and, after hours, became a philosophical apologist for avant-garde film ..
In addition to witnessing the deconstruction of established film grammar, and the unmasking what were regarded as the deceptions perpetrated by cinematic illusionism, spectatorial attention was redirected towards the means of production, the gadgetry as well as the physical and chemical substrate of film, all of these material attributes being previously concealed. (114)
… they brought into the equation the idea of film as time-based projection event encompassing the technology, the space-both social and physical -and, in concert with the project of expanded cinema and installation art beyond it, the experience of spectators. (114)
the illusionism of cinema as shaken to its core. (114)
According to A.L.Rees, this marked the moment when ‘form became content,’ and, as in the UK, the new opacity of film gave rise to the possibility of reflecting on the experience of spectatorship, as the work unfolded. (115, Rees, 2011, p.79.)
CHAPTER 7 : Structural film : Detractions and Revisions
Structural film의 기여는 우선, cinema 전복한 것, 그리고 spectator의 역할에 초점 맞춘것.
betray the constructed nature of the cinematic display promote the audience’s continuing awareness of their own spectatorship. (131)
If Gidal had wished to block all associative and illusory elements in his work, and test the limits of our definition of ilm, he might have followed the example of Nam June Paik whose Zen for Film (1964) consisted of an eight-minute strip of 16mm clear leader, devoid of any images, or man-made marks, continuously looping through a projector. The only narrative in this filmic tabula rasa is the phenomenon of projected light and the gradual accumulation of dust and scratches that tells the life story of an individual strip of celluloid. (133)
there is no doubt that experimental film was responsible for some extraordinary formal developments. The era of ‘counter culture‘ both enriched artists’ film and video and revitalised the mainstream…
Nicky Hamlyn has argued that structural film inaugrated a pragramme of investigations into ‘percepetion,’ exploring the human eye, he experience of time and movement and their complex relationship to film technology. (136)
The many points of intersection between perception and the apprehension of film were investigated in these early years and as… Investigations of spectatorship arising from the experimental phase of artists’ moving image are also precursors to studies measuring the effects of concentrated, long-term exposure to screen information and they can help us consider aspects of spectatorship that arise when we encounter the moving image in the context of installation. (137)
If the major contribution of the structural era was indeed its critical analysis of film form and the apparatus of cinema, and its secondary achievement, the inauguration of a contemporary interest in visual perception, then the whole enterprise turned on a consideration of spectatoship. (139)